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Real Rate of Growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and of Agriculture, Industry,
and Services Sectors, 1950-96 (in percentages)



Year GDP Agriculture Industry Services
1950 6.8 1.5 11.3 7.1
1951 4.9 0.7 6.4 9.9
1952 7.3 9.1 5.0 10.8
1953 4.7 0.2 8.7 -0.1
1954 7.8 7.9 8.7 13.0
1955 8.8 7.7 10.6 3.5
1956 2.9 -2.4 6.9 4.7
1957 7.7 9.3 5.7 9.0
1958 10.8 2.0 16.2 5.4
1959 9.8 5.3 11.9 1.2
1960 9.4 4.9 9.6 13.0
1961 8.6 7.6 10.6 11.9
1962 6.6 5.5 7.8 3.3
1963 0.6 1.0 0.2 2.9
1964 3.4 1.3 5.2 2.0
1965 2.4 12.1 -4.7 1.3
1966 6.7 -1.7 11.7 5.8
1967 4.2 5.7 3.0 5.8
1968 9.8 1.4 13.2 8.9
1969 9.5 6.0 12.2 8.4
1970 10.3 5.6 10.4 10.2
1971 11.3 10.2 11.8 11.2
1972 11.9 4.0 14.2 12.4
1973 14.0 0.1 17.0 15.6
1974 8.2 1.3 8.5 10.6
1975 5.2 6.6 4.9 5.0
1976 10.3 2.4 11.7 11.6
1977 4.9 12.1 3.1 5.0
1978 5.0 -2.7 6.4 6.2
1979 5.8 4.7 6.8 7.8
1980 9.2 9.5 9.2 9.0
1981 -4.4 8.0 -8.9 -2.2
1982 0.7 -0.5 0.0 2.0
1983 -3.4 -0.6 -5.8 -0.8
1984 5.0 3.4 6.6 4.1
1985 8.3 10.0 8.3 6.5
1986 7.5 -8.0 11.8 8.3
1987 3.6 15.0 1.0 3.3
1988 -0.1 0.8 -2.6 2.3
1989 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.8
1990 -4.0 -3.7 -8.0 -0.8
1991 0.3 2.8 -1.8 1.6
1992 -0.8 5.4 -3.7 0.0
1993 4.2 -1.0 6.9 3.5
1994 6.0 9.3 7.0 4.2
1995 4.3 5.1 2.1 6.0
1996 2.9 3.1 2.3 3.0

Source: Based on information from Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Conjuntura Econômica [Rio de Janeiro], various issues; Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Estatísticas históricas do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 1990; and Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Sistema IBGE de Recuperação Automática--SIDRA 97 (Internet address: http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br).

Principal Components of the Current Account, 1970-96 (in millions of United States dollars)

Year Exports Imports1 Trade Balance Net Services Current Account2
1970 2,739 2,507 232 -815 -562
1971 2,904 3,245 -341 -980 -1,307
1972 3,991 4,235 -244 -1,250 -1,489
1973 6,199 6,192 7 -1,722 -1,688
1974 7,951 12,641 -4,690 -2,433 -7,122
1975 8,670 12,210 -3,540 -3,162 -6,700
1976 10,128 12,383 -2,255 -3,763 -6,017
1977 12,120 12,023 97 -4, 134 -4,037
1978 12,659 13,683 -1,024 -6,037 -6,990
1979 15,244 18,084 -2,840 -7,920 -10,742
1980 20,132 22,955 -2,823 -10,152 -12,807
1981 23,293 22,091 1,202 -13,135 -11,734
1982 20,175 19,395 780 -17,083 -16,311
1983 21,899 15,429 6,470 -13,415 -6,837
1984 27,005 13,916 13,090 -13,215 45
1985 25,639 13,153 12,486 -12,877 -241
1986 22,348 14,044 8,304 -13,694 -5,304
1987 26,224 15,052 11,172 -12,678 -1,436
1988 33,789 14,605 19,184 -15,104 4,174
1989 34,383 18,263 16,120 -14,800 1,564
1990 31,414 20,661 10,753 -15,369 -3,782
1991 31,620 21,041 10,579 -13,542 -1,407
1992 35,793 20,554 15,239 -11,339 6,143
1993 38,597 25,256 13,341 -15,585 -592
1994 43,545 33,079 10,466 -13,542 -1,689
1995 46,506 49,621 -3,115 -11,339 -17,742
1996 47,747 53,286 -5,539 -15,585 -24,347

Source: Based on information from Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Estatísticas históricas do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 1964-86; Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Anuário estatístico do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 1990; and Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Conjuntura Econômica [Rio de Janeiro], May 1991.

Nominal and Real Interest Rates in International Markets, 1970-96 (in percentages)

Year Nominal LIBOR Nominal United States Prime Rate WPI Industrial Countries Real LIBOR Real United States Prime Rate
1970 8.9 7.7 4.1 4.8 3.6
1971 7.1 5.7 3.3 3.8 2.4
1972 6.0 5.3 4.0 2.0 1.3
1973 9.4 8.0 12.4 -3.0 -4.4
1974 10.8 10.8 21.0 -10.2 -10.2
1975 7.8 7.9 8.3 -0.6 -0.4
1976 6.1 6.8 7.1 -1.0 -0.3
1977 6.4 6.8 7.2 -0.8 -0.4
1978 9.2 9.1 5.7 3.5 3.4
1979 12.2 12.7 10.9 1.3 1.8
1980 14.0 15.3 13.8 0.2 1.5
1981 16.7 18.9 9.0 7.7 9.9
1982 13.6 14.9 5.4 8.2 9.5
1983 9.9 10.8 3.3 6.6 7.5
1984 11.3 12.0 3.6 7.7 8.4
1985 8.6 9.9 1.5 7.1 8.4
1986 6.9 8.4 -3.3 10.2 11.7
1987 7.3 8.2 0.9 6.4 7.3
1988 8.1 9.3 3.0 5.1 6.3
1989 9.3 10.9 4.4 4.9 6.5
1990 8.4 10.0 2.7 5.7 7.3
1991 6.1 8.5 0.6 5.5 7.9
1992 3.6 6.0 0.5 3.1 5.5
1993 3.4 6.0 0.5 2.9 5.5
1994 5.1 7.7 1.1 4.0 6.6
1995 5.9 9.0 3.1 2.8 5.9
1996 5.7 8.3 1.0 4.7 7.3

Source: Based on information from International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, Washington, various issues.

Table 7. Index of Real Gross Domestic Product, 1950-96 (1970=100)

Year Index (in percentages) Year Index (in percentages)
1950 28.7 1974 155.1
1951 30.4 1975 163.2
1952 33.0 1976 179.1
1953 33.9 1977 187.4
1954 37.3 1978 196.5
1955 39.9 1979 210.6
1956 41.1 1980 229.9
1957 44.4 1981 219.8
1958 47.9 1982 221.1
1959 50.5 1983 213.5
1960 55.4 1984 224.8
1961 60.2 1985 242.7
1962 64.4 1986 261.1
1963 65.4 1987 270.5
1964 67.3 1988 270.3
1965 69.1 1989 279.2
1966 71.7 1990 267.9
1967 75.2 1991 270.8
1968 83.6 1992 268.4
1969 91.9 1993 279.7
1970 100.0 1994 295.8
1971 111.5 1995 308.5
1972 124.8 1996 317.4
1973 142.3    

Source: Based on information from Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Estatísticas históricas do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 1990; Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Anuário estatístico do Brasil, various issues; and Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Sistema IBGE de Recuperação Automática--SIDRA 97 (Internet address: http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br).

Table 8. Index of Average Real Minimum Wage, 1960-96 (1980=100)

Year Index (in percentages) Year Index (in percentages)
1960 129.94 1979 97.51
1961 149.25 1980 100.00
1962 127.14 1981 98.69
1963 114.95 1982 99.12
1964 119.89 1983 87.86
1965 113.68 1984 81.24
1966 102.40 1985 83.90
1967 98.14 1986 82.29
1968 98.80 1987 64.04
1969 97.43 1988 63.23
1970 95.56 1989 68.47
1971 95.82 1990 46.72
1972 92.69 1991 45.12
1973 96.24 1992 45.46
1974 90.83 1993 47.47
1975 77.36 1994 36.09
1976 95.52 1995 35.85
1977 95.83 1996 36.39
1978 97.92    

Source: Based on information from Donald V. Coes, Macroeconomic Crises, Policies, and Growth in Brazil, 1964-90, Washington: World Bank, 1995; and Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Conjuntura Econômica [Rio de Janeiro], various issues.

Major Permanent Crops: Area Harvested, Production, Mean Productivity, Production Value, and Major Producing States, 1993

Main Product Area Harvested (hectares) Production (1,000 tons) Mean Productivity (kilograms per hectare) Production Value (millions of CR$) Major Producing State
Apples 25,652 3,494 136,200 18,706 Santa Catarina
Avocados2 15,112 423 28,004 2,766 São Paulo
Bananas 520,014 558 1,073 39,994 Bahia
Cocoa (beans) 734,124 341 464 25,933 Bahia
Cashew nuts 726,140 77 106 5,600 Piauí
Coconut2 231,660 837 3,615 15,987 Bahia
Coffee (beans) 2,259,332 2,558 1,131 189,529 Minas Gerais
Cotton, seed (arboreous) 137,333 8 57 388 Ceará
Grapes 60,200 787 13,079 30,839 Rio Grande do Sul
Guavas2 8,479 1,392 164,172 2,737 São Paulo
Hevea (coagulated latex) 51,626 54 1,048 3,989 São Paulo
Lemons2 43,967 7,220 164,214 12,637 São Paulo
Mangoes2 53,107 1,610 30,316 6,548 São Paulo
Oranges2 800,505 93,986 117,408 223,355 São Paulo
Palm oil (nuts) 69,714 657 9,421 4,866 Pará
Papayas2 26,322 1,081 41,069 21,844 Bahia
Passion fruit2 32,539 3,004 92,324 7,943 Pará
Peaches2 18,954 1,273 67,173 6,153 Rio Grande do Sul
           
           
Pepper (black) 23,572 42 1,793 2,652 Pará
Sisal 179,105 126 703 3,327 Bahia
Tangerines2 48,586 4,891 100,663 10,397 São Paulo
Yerba maté (green leaves) 18,841 227 12,066 2,466 Rio Grande do Sul

Source: Based on information from Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Directoria de Pesquisas, Departmento de Agropecuária, Agricultural Production Survey [Rio de Janeiro], 1995.

Major Temporary Crops: Area Harvested, Production, Mean Productivity, Production Value, and Major Producing States, 1993

Main Product Area Harvested (hectares) Production (1,000 tons) Mean Productivity (kilograms per hectare) Production Value (millions of CR$) Major Producing State
Beans (grain) 3,884,341 2,478 638 102,930 Paraná
Cassava 1,810,895 21,837 12,058 140,049 Pará
Corn (grain) 11,870,763 30,051 2,531 283,455 Paraná
Cotton, seed (herbaceous) 922,593 1,127 1,221 28,245 Paraná
Garlic 17,441 87 4,984 12,004 Santa Catarina
Onions 71,910 929 12,914 17,844 São Paulo
Pineapples 39,719 835 21,012 15,044 Paraíba
Potatoes 162,063 2,368 14,608 30,509 Paraná
Rice (paddy) 4,411,315 10,108 2,291 154,100 Rio Grande do Sul
Soybeans (grain) 10,635,300 22,575 2,122 232,973 Rio Grande do Sul
Sugarcane 3,864,488 244,344 63,227 317,622 São Paulo
Tobacco (leaves) 372,912 658 1,763 22,916 Rio Grande do Sul
Tomatoes 53,726 2,348 43,706 48,701 São Paulo
Wheat 1,462,741 2,156 1,474 38,467 Paraná

Source: Based on information from Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Directoria de Pesquisas, Departmento de Agropecuária, Agricultural Production Survey [Rio de Janeiro], 1995.

Number of Livestock and Poultry by Region, 1992 (in thousands)

Region Cattle Buffalo Horses Goats Sheep Hogs Poultry
Center-West 48,788 127 954 164 418 3,341 30,787
North 15,847 877 550 267 328 4,216 30,437
Northeast 26,912 117 1,780 10,928 7,974 9,752 109,947
South 25,451 195 1,208 452 10,848 11,085 271,280
Southeast 37,443 107 1,837 350 387 6,139 197,174
TOTAL 154,441 1,423 6,329 12,160 19,956 34,532 639,625

Source: Based on information from Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Directoria de Pesquisas, Departamento de Agropecuária, Livestock and Poultry Production Survey [Rio de Janeiro], 1995.

Table 12. Monetary Units, 1942-94

Monetary Unit Date Created Relation to Preceding Unit
Cruzeiro (Cr$) October 5, 1942 Cr$1.00=1,000 reis
Cruzeiro novo (NCr$) February 8, 1967 NCr$1.00=Cr$1,000
Cruzeiro (Cr$) May 15, 1970 Cr$1.00=NCr$1.00
Cruzado (Cz$) February 28, 1986 Cz$1.00=Cr$1,000
Cruzado novo (NCz$) January 15, 1989 NCz$1.00=Cz1,000
Cruzeiro (Cr$) March 16, 1990 Cr$1.00=NCz$1,000
Cruzeiro real (CR$) August 1, 1993 CR$1.00=Cr$1,000
Real (R$) July 1, 1994 R$1.00=CR$2,750

Source: Based on information from Donald V. Coes, Macroeconomic Crises, Policies, and Growth in Brazil, 1964-90, Washington, 1995, 172.

Principal Components of the Balance of Payments, 1981-96 (in millions of United States dollars)

Year Trade Balance Net Services Current Account Capital Account Interest Payments
1981 1,202 -13,135 -11,734 12,773 -9,161
1982 780 -17,083 -16,311 7,851 -13.494
1983 6,470 -13,415 -6,837 2,103 -11,008
1984 13,090 -13,215 45 253 -11,471
1985 12,486 -12,877 -241 -2,554 -11,259
1986 8,304 -13,694 -5,304 -7,108 -11,126
1987 11,172 -12,678 -1,436 -7,986 -10,318
1988 19,184 -15,104 4,174 -8,685 -12,085
1989 16,120 -14,800 1,564 -4,179 -12,016
1990 10,753 -15,369 -3,782 -4,715 -9,748
1991 10,579 -13,542 -1,407 -4,148 -8,621
1992 15,239 -11,339 6,143 25,271 -7,253
1993 13,341 -15,585 -592 10,115 -8,280
1994 10,466 -13,542 -1,689 14,294 -6,338
1995 -3,115 -11,339 -17,742 30,703 -8,158
1996 -5,539 -15,585 -24,347 n.a. -9,840

Source: Based on information from Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Estatísticas históricas do Brasil, Section 11.6, Rio de Janeiro, 1981-86; Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Anuário estatístico do Brasil, 1986-88, Rio de Janeiro, 1990; and Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Conjuntura Econômica [Rio de Janeiro], various issues, 1989-96.

Public-Sector National Income Accounts, 1970-90

Year Total Tax Receipts Net Transfers Interest on Domestic Debt Interest on External Debt Net Receipts of Public Sector Total Noninterest Expenditures Net Public- Sector Saving Noninterest Public- Sector Surplus
  1 2 3 4 5=1-2-3-4 6 7=5-6 8=1-2-6
1970 26.3 8.8 0.5 0.1 17.0 11.3 5.6 6.2
1971 25.2 7.8 0.4 0.1 17.0 11.2 5.7 6.2
1972 25.9 7.8 0.3 0.2 17.7 10.7 7.0 7.5
1973 25.0 7.8 0.4 0.1 16.7 10.0 6.7 7.2
1974 25.1 8.2 0.4 0.1 16.4 9.4 7.0 7.5
1975 25.2 9.4 0.4 0.2 15.2 10.2 5.0 5.6
1976 25.1 8.8 0.5 0.2 15.7 10.5 5.2 5.9
1977 25.6 8.7 0.5 0.2 16.2 9.4 6.7 7.4
1978 25.7 10.0 0.5 0.2 15.0 9.7 5.3 6.0
1979 24.7 9.7 0.6 0.3 14.1 9.9 4.2 5.1
1980 24.7 11.6 0.8 0.4 11.9 9.2 2.7 3.9
1981 24.7 10.9 1.1 0.3 12.4 9.3 3.1 4.4
1982 25.3 11.1 1.1 1.1 12.0 10.0 1.9 4.2
1983 25.1 11.0 1.6 1.6 10.9 9.7 1.2 4.4
1984 21.8 9.4 2.4 1.8 8.3 8.3 0.0 4.2
1985 22.5 8.8 3.4 1.5 8.8 9.9 -1.0 3.8
1986 25.4 9.4 3.6 1.4 11.0 10.7 0.3 5.2
                 
1987 23.3 9.1 3.1 1.4 9.6 12.2 -2.5 2.0
1988 21.9 8.4 3.1 1.7 8.6 12.6 -4.0 0.9
1989 21.9 9.4 6.1 2.0 4.4 14.3 -9.9 -1.8
1990 27.4 10.0 1.9 2.1 13.4 15.6 -2.2 1.8

Source: Based on information from Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Departamento Nacional de Contas, Rio de Janeiro, 1992.

Annual Inflation Rate, 1964-96 (in percent change in consumer price index)

Year Index Year Index
1964 83.9 1981 109.9
1965 37.0 1982 95.4
1966 37.6 1983 154.5
1967 24.3 1984 220.6
1968 23.5 1985 225.5
1969 20.0 1986 142.3
1970 19.0 1987 224.8
1971 19.2 1988 684.5
1972 15.6 1989 1,320.0
1973 15.7 1990 2,739.7
1974 33.6 1991 414.7
1975 29.0 1992 991.4
1976 45.0 1993 2,103.7
1977 42.7 1994 2,406.8
1978 38.7 1995 14.8
1979 53.9 1996 9.3
1980 100.2    

Source: Based on information from Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Conjuntura Econômica [Rio de Janeiro], various issues.

Nominal Tariff Rate Average by Sector, Selected Years, 1980-94 (in percentages)

Sector 1980 1990 1991 19921 19931 19941
Agricultural and forestry products 16.4 12.7 11.0 9.9 9.1 n.a.
Beverages 179.0 75.2 63.7 53.5 34.7 19.7
Chemicals 48.2 17.5 13.1 11.7 10.0 9.5
Clothing and foot- wear 181.2 38.3 33.6 27.0 20.3 16.4
Communications and electrical products 95.4 45.2 37.0 31.9 26.2 21.5
Food products 107.8 26.7 20.7 17.0 14.9 13.1
Furniture 148.2 38.6 31.7 24.7 20.0 20.0
Machinery and equipment 56.3 40.7 30.7 26.1 21.3 19.6
Metals 77.4 27.0 20.8 17.6 14.6 12.3
Mining 27.0 6.0 3.8 2.2 1.4 1.1
Nonmetallic mineral products 109.4 25.9 14.8 12.2 8.3 7.2
Paper and paper products 120.2 18.1 9.6 7.7 6.8 6.7
Perfumes and cosmetics 160.5 58.2 41.6 28.7 24.0 19.6
Pharmaceuticals 27.9 24.7 18.5 15.7 12.8 12.6
Plastics 203.8 39.2 35.3 30.0 21.5 18.8
Rubber and rubber products 107.3 51.4 36.7 29.3 20.7 15.2
Textiles 167.3 35.7 34.7 27.6 23.8 17.0
Tobacco products 184.6 79.1 69.5 60.0 37.3 19.1
Transportation equipment 101.9 47.0 37.0 31.4 25.7 21.3
Wood and wood products 125.3 21.1 11.3 10.7 10.2 9.9
Miscellaneous 87.0 43.9 35.0 28.5 22.4 17.3
Simple average 115.8 31.4 24.6 20.4 16.4 13.6
Standard deviation 51.7 17.7 15.2 12.6 9.3 6.9

Source: Based on information from Honório Kume and Guida Piani, "A política de importação no período 1991-1994," Rio de Janeiro, 1991.

 

 

 


About Brazil
Table A. Selected Acronyms and Abbreviations
Table B. Chronology of Important Events
Metric Conversion Coefficients and Factors
Extent of Brazil's Borderline Shared by Neighboring Countries and the Atlantic Ocean
Territory by Region and State
Geography
Brazil Data Center
Society
Economy
Transportation and Communications
Government and Politics
National Security


Historical Setting

The Indigenous Population
The Colonial Era, 1500-1815

- Frontier Expansion That Shaped Brazil
- Early Colonization
- French and Dutch Incursions
- Gold Mining Displaces Cane Farming

- The Transition to Kingdom Status
The Kingdom of Portugal and Brazil, 1815-21

The Empire, 1822-89
- Emperor Pedro I, 1822-31

- The Regency Era, 1831-40
- The Second Empire, 1840-89

The Republican Era, 1889-1985
- The Old or First Republic, 1889-1930

- The Era of Getúlio Vargas, 1930-54
- The Post-Vargas Republic, 1954-64
- The Military Republic, 1964-85

The Society and Its Environment

The Physical Setting
- Size and Location
- Geology, Geomorphology, and Drainage

- Soils and Vegetation
- Climate
- Geographic Regions

North / Northeast
South / Southeast
Center-West

- The Environment
Population
- Population Size and Distribution
- Mortality / Fertility
- Migration and Urbanization
Social Structure
Social Classes
- Gender
- Youth / Elderly
- Race and Ethnicity
- Amerindians
- Rural Groups
Cultural Unity and Diversity
- The Brazilian Way
- Language
- Mass Communications
- Family and Kinship
Religion
- Roman Catholicism
- Other Religions

Health Status and Health Care
- Indicators of Health
- Infectious and Chronic Diseases
- Nutrition and Diet
- The Health Care System
- Health Professionals and Resources
Public Health and Welfare
- Social Security

- Sanitation and Public Utilities
- Housing
Education
- Literacy
- Primary and Secondary Schools
- Colleges and Universities
- Principal Research Libraries
Social Conflict and Participation
- Conflict and Nonviolence
- Growth of Social and Environmental Movements
- Inclusion and Exclusion

The Economy

Historical Background and Economic Growth

- The Colonial Period
The Sugar Cycle, 1540-1640
The Eighteenth-Century Gold Rush

- The Economy at Independence, 1822
- The Coffee Economy, 1840-1930
- A Period of Sweeping Change, 1930-45
- Import-Substitution Industrialization, 1945-64
- Stagnation and Spectacular Growth, 1962-80
Stagnation, 1962-67
Spectacular Growth, 1968-73

Growth with Debt, 1974-80

- Stagnation, Inflation, and Crisis, 1981-94
The 1981-84 Period
The 1985-89 Period

The 1990-94 Period

The Labor Force and Income Levels
- Employment and Earnings
Employment

Earnings

- Inequality and Poverty
Structure of Production
- Agriculture
- Livestock
- Fishing
- Industry
- Mining
- Energy
Electric Power
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Nuclear Power

- The Services Sector
Transportation
Highways

Railroads
Subways
Airports
Ports
Inland Waterways
Merchant Marine
Telecommunications
Tourism

Privatization
Exchange-Rate and Balance of Payments Policies
- Exchange Rates and Foreign Trade
- Capital Flows and the External Debt
Fiscal and Monetary Policy, the Public Sector, and Inflation
- Fiscal Trends in the 1980s
- Pressures on Public-Sector Expenditures in the 1980s
- Fiscal Deficits and Inflation
Brazil's Real Plan
Trade Policies
Trade Patterns and Regional Economic Integration
Economic Outlook

Government and Politics

Political Culture
Constitutional Framework
Structure of Government
- The Executive

- The Legislature
- The Judiciary
- State and Local Governments
The Political Party System
- Historical Origins and Evolution
Major Parties in Congress

Progressive Renewal Party
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
Liberal Front Party
Brazilian Labor Party
Democratic Labor Party
Workers' Party
Brazilian Social Democracy Party
Progressive Party

Minor Parties in Congress
Party of National Reconstruction
Brazilian Socialist Party
Brazilian Communist Party
Communist Party of Brazil

- Regional Strength of the Parties
- Party Legislation
Politics
- Sarney's Presidency, 1985-90
- Collor de Mello's Presidency, 1990-92
- Franco's Presidency, 1992-94
- Cardoso's Presidency, 1995-2003
Women in Politics
The Electoral System
Elections
- The Presidential Election of 1989
- Congressional and State Elections, 1990
- Municipal Elections, 1992

- General Elections, 1994
- Municipal Elections, 1996
Interest Group Politics
- Interest Groups
- The Lobbying Process
- The Media
Foreign Relations
- The Foreign Service
- Foreign Policy Decision Making
-Multilateral Relations
- Latin America
- Europe
- The Middle East
- Africa
- Asia
- United States



National Security

The Military Role in Society and Government

- Military Rebellion and the Revolution of 1930
- From Moderator to Director, 1930-85
- The Internal Security Mission, 1964-85
- Civil-Military Relations, 1985-94
Brazil and International Conflicts, 1917-95
Foreign Military Influence
The Military Role in the Intelligence Services
- The National Intelligence Service, 1964-90
- The Strategic Affairs Secretariat, 1990-94
Defense Industries
Mission of the Armed Forces
- The Military Mission since 1988
- The Military in the Amazon
- The Military Role in Counter-Drug Actions
- Civic Action
Defense Expenditures
Organization of the Armed Forces
- Command and Control
- Brazilian Army
- Brazilian Navy
- Brazilian Air Force
Personnel and Training
- Conscription
- Ranks, Uniforms, and Insignia
- Education and Training
- Sociology of the Officer Corps
- Officer Recruitment
- Women in the Armed Forces
Security Forces
- Federal Police
- State Police
Crime and Punishment
- Crime in Brazil
- Penal Code
- Penal Institutions
Toward the Future

Science and Technology

Historical Evolution
Colonial Science

Imperial Science
Applied Science in Agriculture and Health
The Search for Alternatives
Science and Technology as Modernization, 1945-64
The Great Leap Forward, 1968-79
Science and Technology as a Pressure Group, 1979-90
The Computer Industry Policy
Science for Industrial Competitiveness
Administration of Science and Technology
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Table 17. Foreign Trade by Major Product, Selected Years, 1978-96 (in millions of United States dollars)

Product 1978 1982 1986 1990 1996
Exports          
Primary products          
Coffee 1,947 1,858 2,006 1,102 1,719
Iron ore 1,028 1,847 1,615 2,409 2,693
Soybeans 1,050 1,619 1,253 1,609 3,743
Sugar 196 259 141 289 936
Other 1,757 2,655 2,265 3,342 3,094
Total primary products 5,978 8,238 7,280 8,751 12,185
Manufactured products          
Iron and steel 172 795 1,179 1,644 2,574
Machinery 566 1,191 1,471 2,474 2,211
Orange juice 333 575 678 1,468 1,389
Transportation equipment 828 1,718 1,568 2,181 2,464
Other 4,605 7,407 9,999 14,318 26,103
Total manu- factured products 6,504 11,686 14,895 22,085 34,741
Other 177 251 173 578 821
Total exports 12,659 20,175 22,348 31,414 47,747
Imports          
Chemicals 893 1,003 1,352 1,691 6,677
Fertilizers 309 239 325 319 426
Fuels and lubricants 4,483 10,457 3,540 5,363 6,906
Grain 702 848 823 251 2,105
Other 7,296 6,848 8,004 12,782 37,172
Total imports 13,683 19,395 14,044 20,406 53,286
TRADE BALANCE -1,024 780 8,304 11,008 -5,539

Source: Based on information from Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Conjuntura Econômica [Rio de Janeiro], various issues; and Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Estatísticas históricas do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 1964-97.

Table 18. Party Members in the National Congress, Selected Years, 1987-97

Party Delegation 1987 1990 19911 1992 1993 1994 19951 1996 1997
Chamber of Deputies                  
Arena/PDS/PPR/PPB 32 32 42 45 69 67 53 89 79
MDB/PMDB 260 131 108 98 101 96 107 96 94
PCB/PPS 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2
PC do B 3 6 5 5 7 6 10 10 10
PDC 5 15 22 19 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
PDT 24 38 46 40 36 35 33 25 23
PFL 118 90 84 86 87 89 89 99 105
PL 6 13 15 18 14 16 13 9 10
PP 0 0 0 0 37 45 36 n.a. n.a.
PRN 0 31 40 26 16 4 1 0 0
PSB 1 8 11 10 10 10 15 12 11
PSDB 0 60 38 40 45 48 62 83 97
PT 16 17 35 36 35 36 49 50 51
PTB 18 28 38 30 26 29 31 28 23
Other 1 23 16 47 17 19 12 10 8
Total Chamber of Deputies 487 495 503 503 503 503 513 513 513
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
Federal Senate                  
Arena/PDS/PPR/PPB 5 3 3 4 9 10 6 56 6
MDB/PMDB 44 22 27 26 27 27 22 24 22
PDC 1 7 4 3 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
PDT 2 5 5 6 4 5 6 3 2
PFL 16 13 15 17 17 14 19 22 24
PL 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
PP 0 0 0 0 4 4 5 n.a. n.a.
PRN 0 3 3 5 5 3 0 0 0
PSB 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3
PSDB 0 12 10 9 9 11 10 14 14
PT 0 0 1 1 1 1 5 5 5
PTB 1 4 8 8 4 4 5 4 4
Other 0 4 4 1 0 1 1 2 1
Total Federal Senate 72 75 81 81 81 81 81 81 81

Source: Based on official electoral data from the Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate provided by David V. Fleischer.

Table 19. Election Results for the National Congress and for Governors, November 1982, and Composition of Electoral College, January 1985, by Party

  PDS PMDB PDT PTB PT Total
National Congress            
Federal deputies            
Number 235 200 23 13 8 479
Percentage 49.0 41.8 4.8 2.7 1.7 100.0
Number of votes 17,780 17,674 2,393 1,829 1,449 41,125
Percentage of votes 43.2 43.0 5.8 4.5 3.5 100.0
Senators (number) 45 22 1 1 0 69
Governors (number) 13 9 1 0 0 23
Electoral college            
Delegates (number) 81 51 6 0 0 138
Composition 361 273 30 14 8 686

Source: Based on information from preliminary election statistics reported by Brazil, Superior Electoral Court, Diário da Justiça [Brasília], November 28, 1983, 18630-86.

Table 20. Direct Elections for Governor by State and Party, 1982, 1986, 1990, and 1994: Winning Parties

State 1982 1986 1990 1994
Acre PMDB PMDB PDS PPR , PMDB
Alagoas PDS PMDB PSC PMDB
Amapá n.a. n.a. PFL PSB , PTB
Amazonas PMDB PMDB PMDB PPR
Bahia PDS PMDB PFL PFL , PMN
Ceará PDS PMDB PSDB PSDB
Espírito Santo PMDB PMDB PDT PT , PSD
Goiás PMDB PMDB PMDB PMDB , PP
Maranhão PDS PMDB PFL PFL , PPR
Mato Grosso PDS PMDB PFL PDT
Mato Grosso do Sul PMDB PMDB PTB PMDB
Minas Gerais PMDB PMDB PTB PP, PSDB
Pará PMDB PMDB PMDB PPR, PSDB
Paraíba PDS PMDB PMDB PMDB , PDT
Paraná PMDB PMDB PMDB PDT
Pernambuco PDS PMDB PFL PSB
Piauí PDS PMDB PFL PFL, PMDB
Rio de Janeiro PDT PMDB PDT PSDB , PDT
Rio Grande do Norte PDS PMDB PFL PMDB
Rio Grande do Sul PDS PMDB PDT PMDB , PT
Rondônia n.a. PMDB PTR PMDB , PDT
Roraima n.a. n.a. PTB PTB , PSDB
Santa Catarina PDS PMDB PFL PPR, PMDB
São Paulo PMDB PMDB PMDB PSDB , PTB
Sergipe PDS PFL PFL PDT, PSDB
Tocantins n.a. PDC PMDB PPR
Federal District n.a. n.a. PTR PTB, PT

Source: Based on official electoral data provided by David V. Fleischer.

Table 21. Municipal Elections in the 100 Largest Cities, 1988, 1992, and 1996

  1988 1992 1996
Party Percentage of Votes Electorate Percentage of Votes Electorate Percentage of Votes Electorate
PDC 5 870,195 3 741,047 n.a. n.a.
PDS/PPB 10 1,371,263 7 6,822,597 11 8,462,240
PDT 17 8,403,612 15 4,167,710 15 3,783,676
PFL 9 2,373,601 7 1,822,170 86 6,346,293
PL 2 294,793 0 0 2 257,567
PMDB 20 4,211,092 29 9,420,266 164 3,687,305
PRN 2 373,098 1 92,062 0 n.a.
PSB 3 857,004 4 1,021,615 8 2,528,380
PSDB 8 3,065,788 13 3,307,923 21 4,495,374
PT 12 9,269,506 12 4,297,722 9 2,357,134
Party Percentage of Votes Electorate Percentage of Votes Electorate Percentage of Votes Electorate
PTB 12 2,529,370 5 1,375,581 6 1,248,537
Other 0 0 4 550,629 4 452,744
TOTAL 100 33,619,322 100 33,619,322 100 33,619,322

Source: Based on information from Superior Electoral Court provided by David V. Fleischer.

Table 22. Presidential Election, November 15, 1989: First-Round Results

Candidate Party Number of Votes Percentage of Votes Cast
Fernando Collor de Mello PRN 20,611,030 28.5
Luis Inácio "Lula" da Silva PT 11,622,321 16.1
Leonel Brizola PDT 11,167,665 15.5
Mário Covas PSDB 7,790,381 10.8
Pedro Maluf PDS 5,986,585 8.3
Afif PL 3,272,520 4.5
Ulysses Guimarães PMDB 3,204,996 4.4
Roberto Freire PCB 769,117 1.1
Aureliano PFL 600,821 0.8
R. Caiado PSD 488,893 0.7
A. Camargo PTB 379,284 0.5
Other n.a. 1,732,273 2.6
Total valid votes n.a. 67,625,886 n.a.
Blank n.a. 1,176,367 1.6
Void n.a. 3,487,963 4.8
Total votes cast n.a. 72,290,216 100.0
Abstention n.a. 9,784,502 n.a.
ELECTORATE n.a. 82,074,718 n.a.

Source: Based on information from Superior Electoral Court provided by David V. Fleischer.

Table 23. Presidential Election, December 17, 1989, by Size of Municipal Electorate: Second-Round Results

Second-Round Results Municipalities by Size of Electorate (1,000s)  
Above 200 100 to 200 50 to 100 20 to 50 10 to 20 5 to 10 2 to 5 Fewer Than 2 Total Brazil
Percentage of votes cast                  
Fernando Collor de Mello 39.2 44.0 48.1 55.4 59.4 61.9 62.6 60.2 49.9
Luis Inácio "Lula" da Silva 55.0 50.2 45.9 38.6 34.8 32.6 32.1 34.6 44.2
Blank 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.4
Void 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.3 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.6 4.4
Total1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Number of votes cast 23,667,147 6,061,773 6,854,092 11,516,793 10,568,698 7,651,427 3,693,667 247,104 70,260,701
Number of munici- palities 40 49 113 449 956 1,371 1,329 268 4,575
Percentage of voters1 33.7 8.6 9.8 16.4 15.1 10.9 5.3 0.4 100.0

Source: Based on information from Superior Electoral Court provided by David V. Fleischer.

Table 24. Composition of the Federal Senate, Chamber of Deputies, and State Assemblies by Party, 1991 and 1995

Party Federal Senate Chamber of Deputies State Assemblies
1991 1995 1991 1995 1991 1995
PCB/PPS 0 1 3 2 3 3
PC do B 0 0 5 10 8 8
PDS-PDC/PPR 7 6 65 53 133 113
PDT 5 6 47 33 91 88
PFL 15 19 82 89 171 159
PL 0 1 16 13 51 50
PMDB 22 22 108 107 214 205
PMN 0 0 1 4 6 18
PRN 3 0 40 1 73 2
PRP 0 0 0 1 0 7
PSB 1 1 11 15 17 34
PSC 0 0 6 3 13 19
PSD 0 0 1 3 2 20
PSDB 10 10 37 62 74 93
PT 1 5 35 49 83 92
PTB 8 5 38 31 79 72
PTR-PST/PP 0 5 4 36 25 54
PV 0 0 0 1 0 4
Other 4 0 4 0 6 4
TOTAL 76 81 503 513 1,049 1,045

Source: Based on official electoral data provided by David V. Fleischer.

Table 25. Presidential Election, October 3, 1994: First-Round Results

Candidate Party Number of Votes Percentage of Electorate Percentage of Votes Cast1 Percentage of Valid Votes1
Fernando Henrique Cardoso PSDB-PFL-PTB 34,365,895 36.3 44.1 54.3
Luis Inácio "Lula" da Silva PT-PSB-PC do B- PPS-PV- PSTU 17,122,384 18.1 22.0 27.0
Enéas Ferreira Carneiro Prona 4,671,540 4.9 6.0 7.4
Orestes Quêrcia PMDB-PSD 2,772,242 2.9 3.6 4.4
Leonel Brizola PDT 2,015,853 2.1 2.6 3.2
Esperidão Amin PPR 1,739,926 1.8 2.2 2.8
Carlos Gomes PRN 387,756 0.4 0.5 0.6
Hernani Fortuna PSC 238,209 0.3 0.3 0.4
Total valid votes   63,313,805 n.a. n.a. 100
Blank   7,192,255 7.6 9.2 n.a.
Void   7,444,197 7.9 9.6 n.a.
Total votes cast   77,950,257 n.a. 100 n.a.
Abstention   16,832,153 17.8 n.a. n.a.
ELECTORATE   94,782,410 100 n.a. n.a.

Source: Based on information from final electoral data of Superior Electoral Court, November 15, 1994, provided by David V. Fleischer.

Table 26. Party Blocs in the National Congress, 1995

Bloc and Party Seats in Federal Senate Seats in Chamber of Deputies
Pro-government    
PFL 19 89
PSDB 10 62
PTB 5 31
Total pro-government 34 182
Potential government allies    
PL 1 13
PMDB 22 107
PP 5 36
PPR 6 53
Total potential government allies 34 209
Undefined    
PMN 0 4
PRN 0 1
PRP 0 1
PSC 0 3
PSD 0 3
Total undefined 0 12
Opposition    
PC do B 0 10
PDT 6 33
PPS 1 2
PSB 1 15
PT 5 49
PV 0 1
Total opposition 13 110
TOTAL 81 513

Source: Based on official electoral data provided by David V. Fleischer.

Table 27. Regional Strength of Parties by Blocs in the Chamber of Deputies, 1995 (in percentages of region's votes)

Bloc and Party Center- West North North- east South South- east Brazil
Pro-government            
PFL 7.3 12.3 33.8 13.0 9.5 17.3
PSDB 7.3 7.7 13.9 3.9 16.8 12.1
PTB 7.3 9.2 1.3 7.8 7.8 6.0
Total pro-govern- ment 21.9 29.2 49.0 24.7 34.1 35.4
Potential government allies            
PL 2.4 1.5 1.3 0.0 5.0 2.5
PMDB 26.9 26.2 19.9 22.0 17.9 20.9
PP 17.1 9.2 4.0 7.8 6.1 7.0
PPR 7.3 23.2 4.6 15.6 8.9 10.1
Total potential government allies 53.7 60.1 29.8 45.4 37.9 40.5
Undefined            
PMN 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.6 0.8
PRN 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2
PRP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.2
PSC 0.0 1.5 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.6
PSD 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 1.1 0.6
Total undefined 2.4 1.5 4.0 0.0 2.3 2.4
Opposition            
PC do B 4.9 1.5 1.3 1.3 2.2 2.0
PDT 4.9 1.5 4.6 13.0 7.2 6.6
PPS 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.4
PSB 0.0 3.1 6.7 0.0 1.7 2.9
PT 9.8 3.1 4.6 15.6 13.4 9.6
PV 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.2
Total opposition 22.0 9.2 17.2 29.9 25.7 21.7
TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Number of seats (41) (65) (151) (77) (179) (513)

Source: Based on official electoral data provided by David V. Fleischer.

Table 28. Military Expenditures (ME), Armed Forces (AF), Gross National Product (GNP), Central Government Expenditures (CGE), and Population, 1984-95

Year ME (millions of US dollars; constant 1994) AF (1,000s) GNP (millions of US dollars; constant 1994) CGE (millions of US dollars; constant 1994) Population (millions) ME/GNP (percentages) ME/CGE (percentages) ME per Capita (US dollars; constant 1994) AF per 1,000 Population (soldiers) GNP per Capita (US dollars; constant 1994)
1984 3,630 459 432,300 131,300 134.3 0.8 2.8 27 3.4 3,220
1985 3,843 496 468,500 186,900 136.8 0.8 2.1 28 3.6 3,424
1986 4,789 527 510,300 192,100 139.5 0.9 2.5 34 3.8 3,657
1987 5,494 541 532,600 258,800 142.3 1.0 2.1 39 3.8 3,744
1988 7,559 319 530,900 196,200 145.0 1.4 3.9 52 2.2 3,662
1989 8,402 319 554,200 219,400 147.7 1.5 3.8 57 2.2 3,753
1990 9,078 295 532,200 197,700 150.1 1.7 4.6 60 2.0 3,546
1991 7,194 295 537,100 148,300 152.3 1.3 4.9 47 1.9 3,526
1992 6,674 296 74,200 188,100 154.5 1.2 3.5 43 1.9 3,716
1993 8,296 296 602,100 246,600 156.7 1.4 3.4 53 1.9 3,844
1994 7,365 296 625,500 237,900 158.7 1.2 3.1 46 1.9 3,940
1995 10,900 285 656,500 276,800 160.7 1.7 3.9 68 1.8 4,084

Source: Based on information from United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers 1996, Washington, 1996, 62.

Table 29. Major Army Equipment, 1997

Type and Description Country of Origin In Inventory
Medium battle tanks    
Leopard 1A4 Germany 88
Light tanks    
M-3A1 United States 150
M-41B/C United States 296
Armored personnel carriers    
EE-11 Urutu Brazil 219
M-59 United States 20
M-113 United States 584
Armored reconnaissance vehicles    
EE-9 Cascavel Brazil 409
M-8 United States 30
Mortars    
81mm n.a. n.a.
M-30 n.a 217
120mm n.a. 85
Recoilless launchers    
57mm M-18A1 n.a. 240
75mm M-20 n.a. 20
105mm n.a. n.a.
106mm M-40A1 n.a. n.a.
Light antitank guided weapons    
Cobra United States 300
Aérospatiale Milan 3 (600-meter Eryx and 2,000-meter Euromissile) France n.a.
Air defense weapons   200
20mm, 35mm n.a. n.a.
35mm GDF-001 n.a. n.a.
40mm L-60/-70 (some with BOFI) n.a. n.a.
Roland II SAM France 2
Artillery    
Towed n.a. 504
155mm M-114 n.a. 98
105mm M-101/-102 (including 320 Model 56 pack) n.a. 353
Special 105mm M-7/-108 n.a. 74
Coastal 57mm, 75mm, 120mm, 150mm, 152mm, 305mm n.a. 240
Medium-range launchers    
SS-06 108mm n.a. n.a.
Astros II Brazil 4
Helicopters    
Aérospatiale SA-365K Dauphins France 36
Aérospatiale AS-550 Fennec France 15
Aérospatiale AS-350L-1 Esquilos (armed) France 26
Aérospatiale AS-355 France 16

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1997-1998, London, 1997, 209.

Table 30. Major Naval Equipment, 1997

Type and Description Country of Origin In Inventory
Navy    
Aircraft carrier    
Minas Gerais (Colossus-class) Britain 1
Missile destroyers    
Mato Grosso-class United States 3
Missile frigates Britain, Germany, United States 18
Corvettes    
Inhaúma-class n.a. 5
Submarines    
Humaitá (Oberon)-class Britain 3
Tupi-class (Type 209/1400) Germany 3
Patrol and coastal combatants n.a. 35
Mine countermeasures vessels    
Aratú-class Germany 6
Amphibious United States 4
Support and miscellaneous n.a. 26
Lighthouse tenders and auxiliary hydrographic vessels    
River-class Britain 3
Naval Aviation    
Naval helicopters (armed) n.a. 54
Sikorsky S-70A Black Hawk United States 4
SH-3B antisubmarine warfare United States 6
SH-3D antisubmarine warfare United States 7
SH-3G/H antisubmarine warfare United States 6
Lynx HAS-21 attack Britain 5
Lynx MK-21A Britain 9
AS-332 utility France 5
AS-350 armed utility France 12
AS-355 armed utility France 9
TH-57 training United States 13
Marines    
Reconnaissance    
EE-9 Mk IV Cascavels Brazil 6
Amphibious armored vehicles    
Transport landing vehicle, tracked personnel (LVTP-7A1) n.a. 11
Armored personnel carriers    
M-113 United States 28
EE-11 Urutu Brazil 5
Towed artillery    
105mm n.a. 31
M-101 United States 15
L118 n.a. 18
155mm n.a.  
M-114 United States 6
Mortars    
Self-propelled, 81mm United States 2
Rocket launchers    
3.5-inch, M-20, 89mm United States n.a.
Recoilless launchers    
M-40A1, 106mm United States 8
Air defense guns    
L/70 40mm with BOFI n.a. 6

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1997-1998, London, 1997, 210; and George Palaczi-Horvath, "Brazil: Choices for a Navy with a Tight Budget," Naval Forces, 17, No. 1, 1996, 42-49.

Table 31. Major Air Force Equipment, 1997

Type and Description Country of Origin In Inventory
Fighters    
F-103E/D (Mirage IllE/DBR) United States 16
Ground-attack fighters    
F-5E/-B/-F United States 46
AMX Brazil 32
Counterinsurgency aircraft    
AT-26 (EMB-326) Brazil 58
Reconnaissance aircraft    
RC-95 United States 4
RT-26 United States 10
Learjet 35 Reconnaissance/VIP United States 12
RC-130E United States 3
Transports    
C-130H United States 9
KC-130H United States 2
KD-137 United States 4
C-91 United States 12
C-95A/B/C United States 18
C-115 United States 17
VC-91 United States 1
VC/VU-93 United States 12
VC-96 United States 2
VC-97 United States 5
VU-9 United States 5
Boeing 737-200 United States 2
VH-4 helicopters United States 3
C-115 United States 7
C-95A/B/C United States 86
EC-9 (VU-9) United States 6
Helicopters    
Aérospatiale AS-332 (armed) France 6
Aérospatiale AS-355 France 8
Bell 206 United States 4
HB-350B United States 27
OH-6A United States 4
OH-13 United States 25
Trainers    
C-95A/B/C United States 97
AT-26 United States 38
EMB-110 Brazil 97
EMB-ALX (AT-29) Brazil 100
T-23 Brazil 25
T-25 Brazil 98
T-27 (Tucano) Brazil 61
AMX-T Brazil 14
Air-to-air missiles    
AIM-9B Sidewinder United States n.a.
R-530 United States n.a.
Magic 2 France n.a.
Liaison/observation    
T-27 Brazil 8
U-7 Brazil 31
UH-1H (armed) United States 29
C-42 United States 50
Cessna 208 United States 3
U-42 United States 30
Antisubmarine warfare    
S-2 United States 5
S-2A United States 7
S-2E United States 6
Marine reconnaissance/search and rescue    
EMB-110B Brazil 11
EMB-111 Brazil 20

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1997-1998, London, 1997, 210.

Table 32. Number of Fellowships Granted by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, 1995

Fellowships In Brazil Abroad Total
Undergraduate (iniciação científica ) 18,790 n.a. 18,790
Graduate, nondegree (aperfeiçoamento ) 2,397 n.a. 2,397
Master's (M.A.) degree students (mestrado ) 10,960 5 10,965
Doctoral (Ph.D.) degree students 4,965 1,475 6,440
Postdoctoral fellowships 89 293 382
Senior training (estágios senior ) n.a. 21 21
Salary supplement for faculty and full-time researchers (bolsas de pesquisa ) 3,594 n.a. 3,594
TOTAL 25,906 n.a. 25,906

Source: Based on information provided by Simon Schwartzman.

Table 33. Signed Contracts of the Funding Authority for Studies and Projects, 1996

Signed Contracts Number of Contracts Total Value (US$1,000) Percentage Average Value (US$1,000)
Loans        
To industry: Support Program for Technological Development of Industry 1 180,939 50.0 3,547
To consulting firms: Support Program for Users of Con- sulting Services 10 33,758 9.3 3,375
To any firm: Support Program for Total Quality Manage-ment 26 76,626 21.1 2,947
Total loans 87 291,323 80.4 3,348
Grants to National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development 491 61,003 16.8 124.2
Grants to World Bank Sector Loan to the Program in Support of Scientific and Tech-nological Development 128 9,896 2.7 77.3
TOTAL 706 362,222 100.0 513

Source: Based on information from Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Diretoria operacional da Finep, 1997.

Table 34. Fellowships of the Council for Advanced Professional Training Granted in 1991 and 1995

Fellowships In Brazil (spontaneous demand) In Brazil (other) Abroad
Undergraduate 889 n.a. n.a.
Graduate, nondegree n.a. 113 823
Master's (M.A.) degree 10,307 1,517 64
Doctoral (Ph.D.) degree 3,596 2,895 958
Postdoctoral n.a. n.a. 67
"Sandwich" programs, M.A.and Ph.D. levels n.a. n.a. 104
For retired professors 2893 n.a. n.a.
Other n.a. n.a. 1033
TOTAL 12,042 3,395 1,756

Source: Based on information from Coordenação para o Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Relatório de atividades [São Paulo], 1990 and 1991; and Fundação Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior, Relatório de atividades [São Paulo], 1997.

Table 35. Budget of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development by Main Line of Activity, 1980-95 (in millions of United States dollars)

Year Fellowships Grants Institutes Administration Other Total
1980 43.5 23.8 27.0 41.8 4.4 140.5
1981 50.0 23.5 31.8 44.9 2.6 152.8
1982 75.8 39.8 36.1 36.7 2.4 190.8
1983 78.5 32.4 31.0 33.1 3.7 178.7
1984 75.1 26.5 28.3 33.9 6.2 169.9
1985 100.7 47.6 37.9 38.4 6.0 230.5
1986 105.1 56.7 39.4 31.0 8.4 240.6
1987 216.9 57.6 68.0 75.1 5.2 422.8
1988 302.2 59.1 62.6 60.0 5.6 489.5
1989 303.5 43.2 109.9 62.5 29.2 547.9
1990 242.7 56.7 69.3 49.7 20.2 438.6
1991 311.5 26.6 41.3 35.3 20.0 434.7
1992 259.6 10.2 41.1 23.3 14.2 348.4
1993 347.6 41.3 49.9 30.6 14.3 483.7
1994 459.7 19.9 48.4 28.8 27.0 583.8
1995 498.2 34.6 88.1 38.5 21.0 687.7

Source: Based on information from Brazil, Ministry of Science and Technology, Relatório de atividades [Brasília], 1995, 169, 172-73.

Table 36. Expenditures for Science and Technology in the State of São Paulo, 1996

Institution Expenditures (in Brazilian reais (R$))
DCET/Funcet 500
FAPESP 230,667
Universities  
University of São Paulo 767,488
Campinas State University 338,176
Unesp 363,072
Institutes  
IPT 42,398

Source: Based on information from São Paulo Federation to Support Research (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa de São Paulo--FAPESP) and São Paulo State Secretary of Science, Technology, and Economic Development, 1997.

Table 37. Education Obtained by the Higher Education Professorate, 1983 (in percentages)

Level of Education Federal Institutions State Institutions Municipal Institutions Private Institutions Total
No undergrad-uate degree 0.28 0.06 0.13 0.15 0.17
Undergrad- uate 19.29 21.41 18.09 26.87 23.111
Specialization 31.32 33.03 63.95 49.65 41.501
Master's (M.A.) degree 30.43 19.18 13.88 17.1 21.531
Doctoral (Ph.D.) degree 18.68 26.31 3.95 6.24 13.691
Number of indi-viduals 48,959 28,248 6,843 71,726 155,776
M.A. degrees granted 56.7 31.2 n.a. 12.1 100.0
Ph.D. degrees granted 35.6 57.9 n.a. 6.4 100.0

Source: Based on information from Brazil, Ministério da Educação, Serviço de Estatística da Educação e Cultura (SSEC), Brasília, 1997; and Brazil, Ministério da Educação, Council for Advanced Professional Training (Conselho para o Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior--CAPES), Brasília.


1.Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.

2.--- means negligible.

3.Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.

4.Area under litigation between Ceará and Piauí.

5.Includes area of State District of Fernando de Noronha (18.4 square kilometers).

6.Administered by Espírito Santo.

7.n.a.--not available.

8.Free on board.

9.Figures may not add to balances because of rounding. Current account balance includes unilateral transfers (not shown).

10.Interest rates are averages for the year.

11.The LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate) is the rate on six-month deposits in United States dollars.

12.The WPI (Wholesale Price Index) is a weighted average for twenty-two industrialized countries.

13.Preliminary estimate.

14.Includes only those products with area harvested of more than 100,000 hectares or production value of more than CR$2 billion (for value of the cruzeiro real--see Glossary).

15.Production expressed in millions of fruits, and mean productivity expressed in fruits per hectare.

16.Production expressed in millions of bunches, and mean productivity expressed in bunches per hectare.

17.Includes only those products with production value more than CR$10 billion (for value of the cruzeiro real--see Glossary).

18.Production expressed in millions of fruits, and mean productivity expressed in fruits per hectare.

19.Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.

20.n.a.--not available.

21.Includes social security and other net transfers to private sector.

22.Interest on domestic debt excludes monetary correction.

23.Includes public-sector spending on wages and salaries and expenditure for goods and services.

24.The price index on which the series is based is the Indice Geral de Preços--Disponibilidade Interna (General Index of Prices--Internal Availability).

25.Projected.

26.n.a.--not available.

27.Free on board. Figures may not add to totals or balances because of rounding.

28.Result of election the previous year.

29.Aliança Renovadora Nacional (National Renewal Alliance).

30.Partido Democrático Social (Democratic Social Party).

31.Partido Progressista Renovador (Progressive Renewal Party).

32.Partido Progressista Brasileiro (Brazilian Progressive Party).

33.Merged with PP and PPR to form PPB in September 1995.

34.Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement).

35.Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party).

36.Partido Comunista Brasileiro (Brazilian Communist Party).

37.Partido Popular Socialista (Popular Socialist Party).

38.Partido Comunista do Brasil (Communist Party of Brazil).

39.Partido Democrático Cristão (Christian Democratic Party).

40.Merged with PDS to form PPR in April 1993; n.a.--not available.

41.Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party).

42.Partido da Frente Liberal (Liberal Front Party).

43.Partido Liberal (Liberal Party).

44.Partido Progressista (Progressive Party).

45.Partido da Reconstrução Nacional (National Reconstruction Party).

46.Partido Socialista Brasileiro (Brazilian Socialist Party).

47.Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Brazilian Social Democracy Party).

48.Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party).

49.Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party).

50.Partido Democrático Social (Democratic Social Party).

51.Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party). Merged with Progressive Party (Partido Progressista--PP) in February 1992.

52.Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party).

53.Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party).

54.Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party).

55.In thousands. Excludes 5,286,684 blank and 2,058,459 void ballots.

56.Includes forty-four senators elected in 1978 and three new seats elected from Rondônia. At the end of 1983, the PMDB acquired its twenty-second seat, because the alternate elected in 1978 had since left Arena for the PP and then the PMDB. Thus, the PDS lost its two-thirds majority.

57.Only twelve PDS governors were elected directly. Governor of Rondônia was appointed through 1987.

58.Includes six delegates representing the majority party in each of the twenty-two state assemblies. Because of a tie in Mato Grosso do Sul, the PDS and PMDB each got three delegates.

59.Includes federal deputies, senators, and delegates. Met on January 15, 1985.

60.Nine states elected governors in the first round (October 3, 1994), and eighteen states elected governors in the second round (November 15, 1994). Italicized party won.

61.Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party).

62.Partido Democrático Social (Democratic Social Party).

63.Partido Progressista Renovador (Progressive Renewal Party).

64.Partido Social Cristão (Social Christian Party).

65.n.a.--not available.

66.Partido da Frente Liberal (Liberal Front Party).

67.Partido Socialista Brasileiro (Brazilian Socialist Party).

68.Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party).

69.Partido da Mobilização Nacional (National Mobilization Party).

70.Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Brazilian Social Democracy Party).

71.Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party).

72.Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party).

73.Partido Social Democrático (Social Democratic Party).

74.Partido Progressista (Progressive Party).

75.Partido Democrático Cristão (Christian Democratic Party). Elected in 1988.

76.Partido Trabalhista Renovador (Workers Renewal Party).

77.Partido Democrático Cristão (Christian Democratic Party). Merged with PDS/PPB in 1993.

78.n.a.--not available.

79.Partido Democrático Social (Democratic Social Party)/Partido do Povo Brasileiro (Brazilian People's Party).

80.Won São Paulo.

81.Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party).

82.Won Rio de Janeiro.

83.Lost Rio de Janeiro.

84.Partido da Frente Liberal (Liberal Front Party).

85.Partido Liberal (Liberal Party).

86.Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party).

87.Won Rio de Janeiro.

88.Partido da Reconstrução Nacional (National Reconstruction Party).

89.Partido Socialista Brasileiro (Brazilian Socialist Party).

90.Won Belo Horizonte.

91.Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Brazilian Social Democracy Party).

92.Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party).

93.Won São Paulo.

94.Lost São Paulo.

95.Lost Belo Horizonte.

96.Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party).

97.Partido da Reconstrução Nacional (National Reconstruction Party).

98.Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party).

99.Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party).

100.Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Brazilian Social Democracy Party).

101.Partido Democrático Social (Democratic Social Party).

102.Partido Liberal (Liberal Party).

103.Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party).

104.Partido Comunista Brasileiro (Brazilian Communist Party).

105.Partido da Frente Liberal (Liberal Front Party).

106.Partido Social Democrático (Social Democratic Party).

107.Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party).

108.n.a.--not applicable.

109.Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.

110.Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.

111.Three seats sub judice.

112.Partido Comunista Brasileiro (Brazilian Communist Party).

113.Partido Popular Socialista (Popular Socialist Party).

114.Partido Comunista do Brasil (Communist Party of Brazil).

115.Partido Democrático Social (Democratic Social Party).

116.Partido Democrático Cristão (Christian Democratic Party).

117.Partido Progressista Renovador (Progressive Renewal Party).

118.Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party).

119.Partido da Frente Liberal (Liberal Front Party).

120.Partido Liberal (Liberal Party).

121.Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party).

122.Partido da Mobilização Nacional (National Mobilization Party).

123.Partido da Reconstrução Nacional (National Reconstruction Party).

124.Partido Revolucionário do Proletariado (Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat).

125.Partido Socialista Brasileiro (Brazilian Socialist Party).

126.Partido Social Cristão (Social Christian Party).

127.Partido Social Democrático (Social Democratic Party).

128.Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Brazilian Social Democracy Party).

129.Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party).

130.Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party).

131.Partido Trabalhista Renovador (Workers Renewal Party).

132.Partido Social Trabalhista (Social Workers Party).

133.Partido Progressista (Progressive Party).

134.Partido Verde (Green Party).

135.Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.

136.Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Brazilian Social Democracy Party).

137.Partido da Frente Liberal (Liberal Front Party).

138.Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party).

139.Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party).

140.Partido Socialista Brasileiro (Brazilian Socialist Party).

141.Partido Comunista do Brasil (Communist Party of Brazil).

142.Partido Popular Socialista (Popular Socialist Party).

143.Partido Verde (Green Party).

144.Partido Social Trabalhista Unificada (Unified Social Workers Party).

145.Partido da Redefinição da Ordem Nacional (National Order Redefinition Party).

146.Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party).

147.Partido Social Democrático (Social Democratic Party).

148.Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party).

149.Partido Progressista Renovador (Progressive Renewal Party).

150.Partido da Reconstrução Nacional (National Reconstruction Party).

151.Partido Social Cristão (Social Christian Party).

152.n.a.--not applicable.

153.Partido da Frente Liberal (Liberal Front Party).

154.Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Brazilian Social Democracy Party).

155.Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party).

156.Partido Liberal (Liberal Party).

157.Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party).

158.Partido Progressista (Progressive Party).

159.Partido Progressista Renovador (Progressive Renewal Party).

160.Partido da Mobilização Nacional (National Mobilization Party).

161.Partido da Reconstrução Nacional (National Reconstruction Party).

162.Partido Revolucionário do Proletariado (Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat).

163.Partido Social Cristão (Social Christian Party).

164.Partido Social Democrático (Social Democratic Party).

165.Partido Comunista do Brasil (Communist Party of Brazil).

166.Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party).

167.Partido Popular Socialista (Popular Socialist Party).

168.Partido Socialista Brasileiro (Brazilian Socialist Party).

169.Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party).

170.Partido Verde (Green Party).

171.Partido da Frente Liberal (Liberal Front Party).

172.Partido Social Democracia Brasileira (Brazilian Social Democracy Party).

173.Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party).

174.Partido Liberal (Liberal Party).

175.Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party).

176.Partido Progressista (Progressive Party).

177.Partido Progressista Renovador (Progressive Renewal Party).

178.Partido da Mobilização Nacional (National Mobilization Party).

179.Partido da Reconstrução Nacional (National Reconstruction Party).

180.Partido Revolucionário do Proletariado (Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat).

181. Partido Social Cristão (Social Christian Party).

182. Partido Social Democrático (Social Democratic Party).

183. Partido Comunista do Brasil (Communist Party of Brazil).

184. Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party).

185. Partido Popular Socialista (Popular Socialist Party).

186. Partido Socialista Brasileiro (Brazilian Socialist Party).

187. Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party).

188. Partido Verde (Green Party).

189.n.a.--not available.

190.Bofors Optronic Fire-Control Instrument.

191.n.a.--not available.

192.Bofors Optronic Fire-Control Instrument.

193.n.a.--not available.

194.Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (Finep). Figures refer to contracts that may span several years, and not to expenditures.

195.Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Tecnológico da Indústria Nacional (ADTEN).

196.Programa de Apoio aos Usuários de Serviços de Consultória (AUSC).

197.Programa de Apoio à Gestão de Qualidade (AGQ).

198.Fundo Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (FUNDCT).

199.Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (PADCT).

200.Coordenação Fundação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES).

201."Spontaneous demand" refers to grants given to people who apply individually, as opposed to grants given to institutions and agency projects. For example, CAPES has a fellowship program designed for teachers in the federal universities, but the program also accepts applicants from the general public.

202.Figures for 1991.

203.n.a.--not available.

204."Sandwich" fellowships are those given for students in graduate programs in Brazil to spend a year or similar period in a foreign institution.

205.Includes special projects.

206.Includes debt-service payments, fringe benefits to employees (for food, nursery, and transportation), and persons working for other government agencies.

207.For value--see Glossary.

208.Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia (Department of Science and Technology)/Fundo Estadual de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (State Foundation for Scientific and Technological Development).

209.Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa de Estado de São Paulo (São Paulo Federation to Support Research).

210.Universidade de São Paulo (USP).

211.Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

212.Universidade Estadual Paulista (São Paulo State University).

213.Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas (Institute for Technological Research).

214.As given. Figures do not appear to be totals.

215.n.a.--not available.


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