Brazil Command and Control
The three services are separate from each other, except in three
areas: the Armed Forces General Staff (Estado-Maior das Forças
Armadas--EMFA), the National Defense Council (Conselho de Defesa
Nacional--CDN), and the Armed Forces High Command (Alto Comando
das Forças Armadas--ACFA) (see fig. 13). The EMFA, which
is involved in planning and coordination, interprets interservice
views about policy and comes the closest to functioning as a ministry
of defense. It is headed by a four-star general, and the chair rotates
among the services. The ACFA is involved with more immediate, day-to-day
problems. It is composed of the ministers of the three services,
their chiefs of staff, and the EMFA chief.
According to Article 91 of the constitution, the CDN is "the
consultative body of the president of the republic in matters related
to national sovereignty and the defense of the democratic state."
The members of the CDN are the president, the vice president, the
president of the Chamber of Deputies, the president of the Senate,
the minister of justice, military ministers, the minister of foreign
affairs, and the minister of planning. The CDN has authority to
"express an opinion in instances of declaration of war and
the celebration of peace" and to "express an opinion on
the decreeing of a state of emergency, state of siege, or federal
intervention." In addition, the CDN is authorized to "propose
the criteria and conditions for the use of areas that are vital
to the security of the national territory and express an opinion
on their continued use, especially in the strip along the borders,
and on matters related to the conservation and exploitation of natural
resources of any kind." The CDN also may "study, propose,
and monitor the progress of initiatives necessary to guarantee national
independence and the defense of the democratic state."
Interestingly, the highest level consultative body available to
the president is the Council of the Republic (Conselho da República).
This body does not include any military minister or officer, although
the president may call on a military minister to participate if
the matter is related to the respective ministry's agenda. According
to Article 89 of the constitution, the Council of the Republic has
authority to make declarations of federal intervention, a state
of emergency, and a state of siege (all security-related issues).
Data as of April 1997