Florida Brazil

Science Search for Alternatives in Brazil

 
Search for Brazil Information
Brazil Resource Center

 

Brazil Search for Alternatives



The Search for Alternatives
In the "search for alternatives" period in the 1930s, political centralization and the first attempt to provide Brazil with modern administrative, military, and educational institutions took place. The main initiatives included the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo--USP), which was created in 1934 as the country's first university. Its nucleus was a School of Philosophy, Sciences, and Letters, with professors coming from France, Italy, Germany, and other European countries. The USP also brought together several research and higher education institutions in the state, such as the School of Medicine (Faculdade de Medicina), the Polytechnical School (Escola Politécnica), and the School of Law (Faculdade de Direito). (The Polytechnical School includes civil, electrical, mechanical, mining, metallurgical, naval and oceanographic, and chemical engineering departments.) The USP became and still is Brazil's main academic and research institution. Along the same pattern, a national university, the University of Brazil (Universidade do Brasil), was created in Rio de Janeiro in 1939. Today, it is called the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro--UFRJ). A third university created in Rio de Janeiro in 1935, the University of the Federal District (Universidade do Distrito Federal), was closed down by the federal government a few years later.

This model of institutional modernization was also applied to the rest of the country. Except for the USP and a few sectors at the UFRJ, however, the philosophy schools (Faculdades de Filosofia) functioned as teacher colleges and conducted little or no research. The traditional professional schools remained independent and dedicated to their traditional degree-granting activities.

Deep conceptual differences between the USP and the University of Brazil help to explain the different institutional development. The São Paulo elites created the USP as part of an emerging tradition of cultural enlightenment. By contrast, the University of Brazil was the product of a centralized and authoritarian government, under the direct influence of the more conservative sectors of the Roman Catholic Church.

The first institutions for technological research were created in the 1930s. They included the National Institute of Technology (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia--INT) in Rio de Janeiro and the Institute for Technological Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas--IPT) in São Paulo. They were supposed to provide technical support to an emerging national industry. The INT was involved in the first studies on the use of sugar cane alcohol for engine combustion and coal from Santa Catarina State for the steel industry.

Economic nationalism became dominant by the end of the 1930s. The 1934 Code of Mines declared as government property all resources under the soil; the first steel plant, the National Iron and Steel Company (Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional--CSN), was established in Volta Redonda in 1942, with United States support, and was linked to Brazil's entry into World War II; oil exploration became a state monopoly, and restrictions were placed on foreign and national private interests.

As the federal administration became more centralized and bureaucratized, some of its research institutions suffered. The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation went through a crisis for lack of autonomy and support. The INT gradually turned into an agency that merely provided training courses for the public bureaucracy.

Data as of April 1997









 



 


About Brazil
Table A. Selected Acronyms and Abbreviations
Table B. Chronology of Important Events
Metric Conversion Coefficients and Factors
Extent of Brazil's Borderline Shared by Neighboring Countries and the Atlantic Ocean
Territory by Region and State
Geography
Brazil Data Center
Society
Economy
Transportation and Communications
Government and Politics
National Security


Historical Setting

The Society and Its Environment

The Economy

Government and Politics

National Security

Science and Technology

Historical Evolution
Colonial Science

Imperial Science
Applied Science in Agriculture and Health
The Search for Alternatives
Science and Technology as Modernization, 1945-64
The Great Leap Forward, 1968-79
Science and Technology as a Pressure Group, 1979-90
The Computer Industry Policy
Science for Industrial Competitiveness
Administration of Science and Technology
The Ministry of Science and Technology

National Council for Scientific and Technological Development
The Funding Authority for Studies and Projects
The Coordination of High-Level Personnel Training
Other Activities by the Federal Government
Science and Technology in the States
The São Paulo Science and Technology System
Research and Development
University Research and Graduate Education
Research in State-Owned Corporations
Technological Research in the Private Sector
Centers of Excellence
Policy Perspectives
Nuclear Programs
The Space Program
Missile Programs
Bibliography
Glossary


Brazil Travel and Tourism

-
Belo Horizonte
- Fernando de Noronha
- Foz do Iguaçu
- Porto Alegre
- Rio de Janeiro
- Salvador Bahia
- São Paulo

Brazil Information Center

Bahia Resort Hotels
Brazilian Consulate
Brazilian Currency
Capoeira
Carnival of Brazil
Dictionary -Transltation
Flights to Brazil
Information About Brazil
Map of Brazil
Travel to Brazil
Visa to Brazil

Florida Brazil Guide
 


Brazil Flag Florida Brazil Guide

Accountant Florida
Airlines
Auto Sales
Beauty Salons
Brazilian Products
Brazilian Stores
Churches
Construction
Dentists Florida
Doctors
Driving Schools Florida
Hotels Florida
Import / Export
Insurance
Jobs
Lawyers Florida
Mechanics
Money Transfers
Moving Company in Florida
Newspapers
Other
Parties / Events
Real Estate Florida
Rental Car Company
Restaurants
Satellite Dishes
Schools Florida
Translation Companies
Travel Agencies
Veterinarians
Workout


Click Here to list your company.

 


Privacy Policy
- Terms of Service - Site Map - Florida Guide

Copyright © 2003 by Florida Brasil.com
All rights reserved