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Table A. Selected Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronym or Abbreviation Organization or Term
ABACC Agência Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Contrôle de Materiais Nucleares (Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials)
ABAL Associação Brasileira de Alumínio (Brazilian Aluminum Association)
ABC Agência Brasileira de Cooperação (Brazilian Cooperation Agency)
ABDD Associação Brasileira de Defesa da Democracia (Brazilian Association for the Defense of Democracy)
ABERT Associação Brasileira das Emissoras de Rádio e Televisão (Brazilian Association of Radio and Television Stations)
ABI Agência Brasileira de Inteligência (Brazilian Intelligence Agency)
ABIN Agência Brasileira de Inteligência (Brazilian Intelligence Agency)
ABINEE Associação Brasileira da Industria Eletro-Eletrônica (Brazilian Electro-Electronic Industry Association)
ABONG Associação Brasileira de Organizações Não-Governementais (Brazilian Association of Nongovernmental Organizations)
ADESG Associações dos Diplomados da Escola Superior de Guerra (Associations of War College Graduates)
AEB Agência Espacial Brasileira (Brazilian Space Agency)
AFA Academia da Fôrça Aérea (Air Force Academy)
AGU Advocacia-Geral da União (Office of the Federal Attorney General)
AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome
ALADI Associação Latino-Americana de Integração (Latin American Integration Association--LAIA)
ALALC Asociación Latinoamericana de Libre Comercio (Latin American Free Trade Association--LAFTA)
ALCSA Área de Livre Comercio Sul-Americana (South American Free Trade Association)
AMAN Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (Agulhas Negras Military Academy)
ANC Assembléia Nacional Constituinte (National Constituent Assembly)
AP Ação Popular (Popular Action)
Arena Aliança Renovadora Nacional (National Renewal Alliance)
Avibrás Avibrás Indústria Aeroespacial S.A. (Avibrás Aerospace Industry, Inc.)
Bacen Banco Central do Brasil (Central Bank of Brazil)
Banerj Banco do Estado de Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro State Bank)
Banespa Banco do Estado de São Paulo (São Paulo State Bank)
BB Banco do Brasil (Bank of Brazil)
BNDE Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico (National Economic Development Bank)
BNDES Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (National Bank for Economic and Social Development)
BNH Banco Nacional de Habitação (National Housing Bank)
Bope Batalhão de Operações Especiais (Special Operations Battalion)
Bovespa Bolsa de Valores do São Paulo (São Paulo Stock Exchange)
Bradesco Banco Brasileiro de Descontos (Brazilian Discount Bank)
Cacex Carteira de Comércio Exterior (Department of Foreign Trade)
CAIC Centro de Atenção Integrada à Criança (Center for Comprehensive Attention to Children)
CAPES Fundação Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Council for Advanced Professional Training)
CBERS Satélite Sino-Brasileiro de Recursos Terrestres (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite)
CBIA Centro Brasileiro de Infancia e Adolescencia (Brazilian Center of Infancy and Adolescence)
CBPF Centro Brazileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (Brazilian Center for Physics Research)
CDTN Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (Center for Development of Nuclear Technology)
CEBs Comunidades Eclesiais de Base (Ecclesiastical Base Communities)
CEF Caixa Econômica Federal (Federal Savings Bank)
CEI Comissão Especial de Investigação (Special Investigating Commission)
Cenimar Centro de Informações de Marinha (Naval Intelligence Center)
Cenpes Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (Research and Development Center)
Cepel Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica (Electric Power Research Center)
Cetem Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (Mineral Technology Center)
CFN Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais (Marines)
CIA Centro de Informações da Aeronáutica (Air Force Intelligence Center)
CIAC Centro Integrado de Assistência à Criança (Integrated Center for Assistance to Children)
CIE Centro de Informações do Exército (Army Intelligence Center)
CLA Centro de Lançamento de Alcântara (Alcântara Launching Center)
CMA Comando Militar da Amazônia (Amazon Region Military Command)
CMFA Comando Geral das Forças Armadas (Armed Forces Joint Command)
CNAE Comissão Nacional de Atividades Espaciais (National Commission for Space Activities)
CNB Comando Naval de Brasília (Brasília Naval Command)
CNBB Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil (National Conference of Brazilian Bishops)
CNDM Conselho Nacional de Direitos da Mulher (National Council on Women's Rights)
CNEN Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (National Nuclear Energy Commission)
CNI Confederação Nacional das Indústrias (National Confederation of Industry)
CNM Comando Naval de Manaus (Manaus Naval Command)
CNPCP Conselho Nacional de Política Criminal e Penitenciária (National Council of Criminal and Prison Policy)
CNPq Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas (National Research Council)
CNPq Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) (original name)
Cobae Comissão Brasileira de Atividades Espaciais (Brazilian Commission for Space Activities)
Cobra Computadores e Sistemas Brasileiros (Brazilian Computers and Systems)
Conama Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (National Environmental Council)
Conasp Conselho Nacional de Segurança Pública (National Council of Public Security)
Coppe Coordenação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia (Coordinating Board of Postgraduate Programs in Engineering)
CPA Conselho para Política Aduaneira (Customs Policy Council)
CPI Comissão Parlamentar de Inquérito (Congressional Investigating Committee)
CPOR Centro de Preparação de Oficiais da Reserva (Training Center for Reserve Officers)
CPqD Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (Research and Development Center)
CPT Comissão Pastoral da Terra (Pastoral Land Commission)
CPTEC Centro de Previsão do Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies Center)
CSN Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional (National Iron and Steel Company)
CSN Conselho de Segurança Nacional (National Security Council)
CTA Centro Técnico Aeroespacial (Aerospace Technical Center)
CTEx Centro Tecnológico do Exército (Army Technology Center)
CTI Fundação Centro Tecnológico para Informática (Computer Technology Center)
CTIC Coordenadoria Técnica de Intercâmbio Comercial (Technical Coordinating Office for Trade)
CTT Coordenadoria Técnica de Tarifas (Technical Coordinating Office for Tariffs)
CVRD Companhia Vale do Rio Dôce (Rio Dôce Valley Company)
DAC Departamento de Aviação Civil (Civil Aviation Department)
DAL Diretoria de Apoio Logístico (Directorate of Logistical Support)
DASP Departamento Administrativo do Serviço Público (Administrative Department of Public Service)
DCET Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia (Department of Science and Technology)
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration (United States)
Depen Departamento Penitenciário Nacional (Federal Prison Department)
DIAP Departamento Intersindical de Assessorial Parlamentar (Interunion Parliamentary Advisory Department)
DIEESE Departamento Intersindical de Estatística e Estudos Sócio-Económicos (Interunion Department for Statistics and Socioeconomic Studies)
DOI-CODI Departamento de Operações Internas-Centro de Operações de Defesa Interna (Internal Operations Department-Internal Defense Operations Center)
DPD Diretoria de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (Directorate of Research and Development)
DPF Departamento de Polícia Federal (Department of Federal Police)
DRS Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear (Directorate of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety)
EC European Community
ECEMAR Escola de Comando e Estado-Maior da Aeronáutica (Air Force Command and General Staff School)
ECEME Escola de Comando de Estado-Maior do Exército (Army General Staff School)
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ECT Empresa de Correios e Telégrafos (Postal and Telegraph Company)
Eletrobrás Centrais Elétricas Brasileiras S.A. (Brazilian Electric Power Company, Inc.)
Eletropaulo Eletricidade de São Paulo S.A. (São Paulo Power, Inc.)
EMA Estado-Maior da Armada (Navy General Staff)
EMAer Estado-Maior da Aeronáutica (Air Force General Staff)
Embraer Empresa Brasileira Aeronáutica (Brazilian Aeronautics Company)
Embrapa Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Brazilian Agriculture and Livestock Research Enterprise)
Embratel Empresa Brasileira de Telecomunicações (Brazilian Telecommunications Company)
Embratur Empresa Brasileira de Turismo (Brazilian Tourism Agency)
EMFA Estado-Maior das Forças Armadas (Armed Forces General Staff)
EN Escola Naval (Naval School)
Engesa Engenheiros Especializados S.A. (Specialized Engineers, Inc.)
EPC Escola Preparatória de Cadetes (Cadet Preparatory School)
EPCAr Escola Preparatória de Cadetes do Ar (Air Cadets' Preparatory School)
ESA European Space Agency
ESCA Engenharia de Sistemas de Contrôle e Automação (Automation and Control Systems Engineering)
Escelsa Espírito Santo Centrais Elétricas S.A. (Espírito Santo Power Plants, Inc.)
ESG Escola Superior de Guerra (War College)
EsNI Escola Nacional de Informações (National Intelligence School)
EsSA Escola de Sargentos das Armas (School for Sergeants of the Services)
EU European Union
FAB Fôrça Aérea Brasileira (Brazilian Air Force)
FAPESP Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (São Paulo State Federation to Support Research)
FBP Frente Brasil Popular (Brazilian Popular Front)
FEB Força Expedicionária Brasileira (Brazilian Expeditionary Force)
FEF Fundo de Estabilização Fiscal (Fiscal Stabilization Fund)
FGTS Fundo de Garantia do Tempo de Serviço (Severance Pay Fund)
FIESP Federação das Indústrias do Estado de São Paulo (São Paulo State Federation of Industries)
Finep Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (Funding Authority for Studies and Projects)
FIP Fôrça Interamericana de Paz (Inter-American Peace Force)
FNDCT Fundo Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development)
FNMA Fundo Nacional do Meio Ambiente (National Environmental Fund)
FSE Fundo Social de Emergência (Social Emergency Fund)
FTA Free Trade Agreement
FTAA Free Trade Area of the Americas
Funai Fundação Nacional do índio (National Indian Foundation)
Funatura Fundação Pró-Natureza (Pro-Nature Foundation)
Funcet Fundo Estadual de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (State Foundation for Scientific and Technological Development)
Furnas Furnas Centrais Elétricas S.A. (Furnas Electric Power Plants, Inc.)
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GDP gross domestic product
GEAP Grupo Evangélico de Ação Política (Political Action Evangelical Group)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GNP gross national product
GPI general price index
G-77 Group of Seventy-Seven
GTA Grupo de Trabalho Amazônico (Amazon Working Group)
HMO health maintenance organization
IAE Instituto de Atividades Espaciais (Space Activities Center)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
Ibama Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources)
IBASE Instituto Brasileiro de Análise Social e Econômica (Brazilian Institute of Social and Economic Analysis)
IBGE Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics)
IBICT Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazilian Institute of Scientific and Technological Information)
IEAv Instituto de Estudos Avançados (Institute of Advanced Studies)
IEM Instituto de Engenharia Mecánica (Institute of Mechanical Engineering)
IEN Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (Nuclear Engineering Institute)
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMPA Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada (Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics)
INAMPS Instituto Nacional de Assistência Médica da Previdência Social (National Institute for Medical Assistance and Social Security)
Inesc Instituto de Estudos Sócio-Econômicos (Institute of Socioeconomic Studies)
Infraero Empresa Brasileira de Infraestructura Aeroportuária (Brazilian Airport Infrastructure Firm)
INPA Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (National Institute of Amazon Research)
INPE Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute of Space Research)
INT Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (National Institute of Technology)
Intelsat International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
Interpol International Criminal Police Organization
IPAM Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia (Environmental Research Institute of Amazônia)
IPEA Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Applied Economic Research Institute)
IPEN Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research)
IPES Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Sociais (Institute for Research and Social Studies)
IPRI Instituto das Pesquisas das Relações Internacionais (International Relations Research Institute)
IPT Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (Institute for Technological Research)
IRBr Instituto Rio Branco (Rio Branco Institute)
IRD Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute)
ISA Instituto Sócio-Ambiental (Social-Environmental Institute)
ITA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (Aeronautical Technology Institute)
LAFTA Latin American Free Trade Association
LAIA Latin American Integration Association
LIBOR London Interbank Offered Rate
Light Serviços de Eletricidade S.A. (Power Services, Inc.)
LNA Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (National Astrophysics Laboratory)
LNCC Laboratório Nacional de Computação Científica (National Computer Science Laboratory)
LNLS Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (National Syncrotron Light Laboratory)
MAST Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences)
MDB Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement)
MECB Missão Espacial Completa Brasileira (Complete Brazilian Space Mission)
MEP Movimento Eleitoral do Povo (People's Electoral Movement)
Mercosul Mercado Comum do Sul (Common Market of the South)
MLRS multiple-launch rocket system
Mobral Movimento Brasileiro de Alfabetização (Brazilian Literacy Movement)
MPEG Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (Emílio Goeldi Museum of Pará)
MPLA Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola)
MR Metropolitan Region
MST Movimento dos Sem-Terra (Landless Movement)
MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime
MUP Movimento de Unidade Progressista (Progressive Unity Movement)
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States)
NDI Núcleo de Direitos Indígenos (Center for Indian Rights)
NGO nongovernmental organization
NPT Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
Nuclebrás Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (Brazilian Nuclear Corporations)
OME Ordem dos Ministros Evangélicos (Order of Evangelical Ministers)
ON Observatório Nacional (National Observatory)
PADCT Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (Program in Support of Scientific and Technological Development)
PAHO Pan American Health Organization
PALOPs Paises Africanos de Lingua Oficial Portuguêsa (Portuguese-Speaking African Countries)
PC Polícia Civil (Civil Police)
PCB Partido Comunista Brasileiro (Brazilian Communist Party)
PC do B Partido Comunista do Brasil (Communist Party of Brazil)
PCDT Programa de Apoio à Competividade e Difusão Tecnológica (Program for Competitiveness and Technological Diffusion)
PDC Partido Democrático Cristão (Christian Democratic Party)
PDN Plano de Defesa Nacional (National Defense Plan)
PDS Partido Democrático Social (Democratic Social Party)
PDT Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party)
Petrobrás Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. (Brazilian Petroleum Corporation)
PF Polícia Federal (Federal Police)
PFL Partido da Frente Liberal (Liberal Front Party)
PGR Procuradoria Geral da República (Office of the Solicitor General of the Republic)
PICD Programa Integrado de Capacitação de Docentes (Faculty Improvement Integrated Program)
PJ Partido da Juventude (Youth Party)
PL Partido Liberal (Liberal Party)
Planasa Plano Nacional de Saneamento (National Sanitation Plan)
PM Polícia Militar (Military Police)
PMDB Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party)
PND Programa Nacional de Desestatização (National Privatization Program)
PNMA Plano Nacional do Meio Ambiente (National Environmental Plan)
PP Partido Popular (Popular Party)
PP Partido Progressista (Progressive Party)
PPB Partido Progressista Brasileiro (Brazilian Progressive Party)
PP-G-7 Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil (Pilot Program for the Conservation of the Brazilian Rain Forest)
PPR Partido Progressista Renovador (Progressive Renewal Party)
PPS Partido Popular Socialista (Popular Socialist Party)
PRN Partido da Reconstrução Nacional (National Reconstruction Party)
Prodes Programa de Avaliação do Desflorestamento da Amazônia Brasileira (Brazilian Amazon Deforestation Appraisal Program)
Prona Partido da Redefinição da Ordem Nacional (National Order Redefinition Party)
PSB Partido Socialista Brasileiro (Brazilian Socialist Party)
PSBR Public Sector Borrowing Requirement
PSC Partido Social Cristão (Social Christian Party)
PSD Partido Social Democrático (Social Democratic Party)
PSDB Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Brazilian Social Democracy Party)
PST Partido Social Trabalhista (Social Workers' Party)
PT Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party)
PTB Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party)
PTR Partido Trabalhista Renovador (Workers' Renewal Party)
PUC-RJ Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro)
PV Partido Verde (Green Party)
QCO Quadro Complementar de Oficiais (Officers' Complementary Corps)
Radiobrás Empresa Brasileira de Radiodifusão (Brazilian Radio Broadcasting Company)
RFFSA Rêde Ferroviária Federal S.A. (Federal Railroad System, Inc.)
RHAE Programa Nacional de Capacitação de Recursos Humanos para o Desenvolvimento Tecnológico (National Program for Human Resource Training for Technological Development)
RJU Regime Jurídico Único (Single Judicial Regime)
SAE Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos (Strategic Affairs Secretariat)
SAF Secretaria de Administração Federal (Federal Administration Secretariat)
SBPC Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Ciência (Brazilian Society for Scientific Development)
SBT Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão (Brazilian Television System)
SBTS Sistema Brasileiro de Comunicação por Satélites (Brazilian Satellite Communication System)
SCCCMN Sistema Comum de Contabilidade e Contrôle de Materiais Nucleares (Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials)
SCD-1 Satélite de Coleta de Dados (Data-Collecting Satellite)
SCI Secretaria de Contrôle Interno (Internal Control Secretariat)
SCTDE Secretaria de Ciência, Tecnologia e Desenvolvimento Econômico (Secretariat for Science, Technology, and Economic Development)
SEE Secretaria Especial de Entorpecentes (Special Secretariat for Drugs)
SEI Secretaria Especial de Informática (Special Secretariat for Informatics)
Seplan Secretaria de Planejamento e Coordenação da Presidência da República (Secretariat of Planning and Coordination of the Presidency of the Republic or Planning Ministry)
SEPNCD Secretaria Especial da Política Nacional do Contrôle de Drogas (Special Secretariat for National Drug-Control Policy)
SFH Sistema Financeiro de Habitação (Housing Finance System)
Sipam Sistema de Vigilância da Amazônia (Amazon Region Surveillance System)
SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Sisnama Sistema Nacional do Meio Ambiente (National System for the Environment)
Sivam Sistema de Vigilância da Amazônia (Amazon Region Surveillance System)
SLC Superintendência de Licenciamento e Contrôle (Licensing and Control Superintendency)
SMA Secretaria de Coordenação dos Assuntos do Meio Ambiente (Environmental Affairs Coordinating Secretariat)
SNDH Secretaria Nacional dos Direitos Humanos (National Secretariat of Human Rights)
SNI Serviço Nacional de Informações (National Intelligence Service)
SPI Serviço de Proteção aos Indios (Indian Protection Service)
SPIA Secretaria de Política de Informática e Automação (Secretariat for Computer and Automation Policy)
SSP Secretaria de Segurança Pública (Secretariat for Public Security)
SSR-1 Satélite de Sensoriamento Remoto (Remote Sensing Satellite)
STF Supremo Tribunal Federal (Federal Supreme Court)
STJ Superior Tribunal de Justiça (Superior Court of Justice)
STM Superior Tribunal Militar (Superior Military Court)
SUS Sistema Único de Saúde (Single Health System)
SWAPO South West African People's Organization
TCE Tribunal de Contas dos Estados (State Accounts Court)
TCM Tribunal de Contas Municipais (Municipal Accounts Court)
TCU Tribunal de Contas da União (National Accounts Court)
Telebrás Telecomunicações Brasileiras S.A. (Brazilian Telecommunications, Inc.)
TFP Sociedade Brasileira de Defesa da Tradição, Familia e Propriedade (Brazilian Association of Tradition, Family, and Property)
TFR Tribunal Federal de Recursos (Federal Court of Appeals)
TJ Tribunal de Justiça (State Supreme Court)
TRE Tribunal Regional Eleitoral (Regional Electoral Court)
TRF Tribunal Regional Federal (Regional Federal Court)
TRT Tribunal Regional do Trabalho (Regional Labor Court)
TSE Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Electoral Court)
TST Tribunal Superior do Trabalho (Superior Labor Court)
UDN União Democrática Nacional (National Democratic Union)
UDR União Democrática Ruralista (Ruralist Democratic Union)
UFRJ Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)
UNCTAD United Nations Commission on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
Unesp Universidade Estadual Paulista (São Paulo State University)
Unicamp Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Campinas State University)
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
URV Unidade Real de Valor (Real Value Unit)
USAID United States Agency for International Development
Usiminas Usinas Siderúrgicas de Minas Gerais S.A. (Minas Gerais Iron and Steel Mills, Inc.)
USP Universidade de São Paulo (University of São Paulo)
Varig Viação Aérea Rio Grande do Sul (Rio Grande do Sul Airline)
VLS Veículo Lançador de Satélite (Satellite Launch Vehicle)
WWF World Wildlife Fund

 

 



 

 


About Brazil
Table A. Selected Acronyms and Abbreviations
Table B. Chronology of Important Events
Geography
Society
Economy
Transportation and Communications
Government and Politics
National Security


Historical Setting

The Indigenous Population
The Colonial Era, 1500-1815

- Frontier Expansion That Shaped Brazil
- Early Colonization
- French and Dutch Incursions
- Gold Mining Displaces Cane Farming

- The Transition to Kingdom Status
The Kingdom of Portugal and Brazil, 1815-21

The Empire, 1822-89
- Emperor Pedro I, 1822-31

- The Regency Era, 1831-40
- The Second Empire, 1840-89

The Republican Era, 1889-1985
- The Old or First Republic, 1889-1930

- The Era of Getúlio Vargas, 1930-54
- The Post-Vargas Republic, 1954-64
- The Military Republic, 1964-85

The Society and Its Environment

The Physical Setting
- Size and Location
- Geology, Geomorphology, and Drainage

- Soils and Vegetation
- Climate
- Geographic Regions

North / Northeast
South / Southeast
Center-West

- The Environment
Population
- Population Size and Distribution
- Mortality / Fertility
- Migration and Urbanization
Social Structure
Social Classes
- Gender
- Youth / Elderly
- Race and Ethnicity
- Amerindians
- Rural Groups
Cultural Unity and Diversity
- The Brazilian Way
- Language
- Mass Communications
- Family and Kinship
Religion
- Roman Catholicism
- Other Religions

Health Status and Health Care
- Indicators of Health
- Infectious and Chronic Diseases
- Nutrition and Diet
- The Health Care System
- Health Professionals and Resources
Public Health and Welfare
- Social Security

- Sanitation and Public Utilities
- Housing
Education
- Literacy
- Primary and Secondary Schools
- Colleges and Universities
- Principal Research Libraries
Social Conflict and Participation
- Conflict and Nonviolence
- Growth of Social and Environmental Movements
- Inclusion and Exclusion

The Economy

Historical Background and Economic Growth

- The Colonial Period
The Sugar Cycle, 1540-1640
The Eighteenth-Century Gold Rush

- The Economy at Independence, 1822
- The Coffee Economy, 1840-1930
- A Period of Sweeping Change, 1930-45
- Import-Substitution Industrialization, 1945-64
- Stagnation and Spectacular Growth, 1962-80
Stagnation, 1962-67
Spectacular Growth, 1968-73

Growth with Debt, 1974-80

- Stagnation, Inflation, and Crisis, 1981-94
The 1981-84 Period
The 1985-89 Period

The 1990-94 Period

The Labor Force and Income Levels
- Employment and Earnings
Employment

Earnings

- Inequality and Poverty
Structure of Production
- Agriculture
- Livestock
- Fishing
- Industry
- Mining
- Energy
Electric Power
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Nuclear Power

- The Services Sector
Transportation
Highways

Railroads
Subways
Airports
Ports
Inland Waterways
Merchant Marine
Telecommunications
Tourism

Privatization
Exchange-Rate and Balance of Payments Policies
- Exchange Rates and Foreign Trade
- Capital Flows and the External Debt
Fiscal and Monetary Policy, the Public Sector, and Inflation
- Fiscal Trends in the 1980s
- Pressures on Public-Sector Expenditures in the 1980s
- Fiscal Deficits and Inflation
Brazil's Real Plan
Trade Policies
Trade Patterns and Regional Economic Integration
Economic Outlook

Government and Politics

Political Culture
Constitutional Framework
Structure of Government
- The Executive

- The Legislature
- The Judiciary
- State and Local Governments
The Political Party System
- Historical Origins and Evolution
Major Parties in Congress

Progressive Renewal Party
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
Liberal Front Party
Brazilian Labor Party
Democratic Labor Party
Workers' Party
Brazilian Social Democracy Party
Progressive Party

Minor Parties in Congress
Party of National Reconstruction
Brazilian Socialist Party
Brazilian Communist Party
Communist Party of Brazil

- Regional Strength of the Parties
- Party Legislation
Politics
- Sarney's Presidency, 1985-90
- Collor de Mello's Presidency, 1990-92
- Franco's Presidency, 1992-94
- Cardoso's Presidency, 1995-2003
Women in Politics
The Electoral System
Elections
- The Presidential Election of 1989
- Congressional and State Elections, 1990
- Municipal Elections, 1992

- General Elections, 1994
- Municipal Elections, 1996
Interest Group Politics
- Interest Groups
- The Lobbying Process
- The Media
Foreign Relations
- The Foreign Service
- Foreign Policy Decision Making
-Multilateral Relations
- Latin America
- Europe
- The Middle East
- Africa
- Asia
- United States



National Security

The Military Role in Society and Government

- Military Rebellion and the Revolution of 1930
- From Moderator to Director, 1930-85
- The Internal Security Mission, 1964-85
- Civil-Military Relations, 1985-94
Brazil and International Conflicts, 1917-95
Foreign Military Influence
The Military Role in the Intelligence Services
- The National Intelligence Service, 1964-90
- The Strategic Affairs Secretariat, 1990-94
Defense Industries
Mission of the Armed Forces
- The Military Mission since 1988
- The Military in the Amazon
- The Military Role in Counter-Drug Actions
- Civic Action
Defense Expenditures
Organization of the Armed Forces
- Command and Control
- Brazilian Army
- Brazilian Navy
- Brazilian Air Force
Personnel and Training
- Conscription
- Ranks, Uniforms, and Insignia
- Education and Training
- Sociology of the Officer Corps
- Officer Recruitment
- Women in the Armed Forces
Security Forces
- Federal Police
- State Police
Crime and Punishment
- Crime in Brazil
- Penal Code
- Penal Institutions
Toward the Future

Science and Technology

Coming Soon!
Historical Evolution
Colonial Science
Imperial Science
Applied Science in Agriculture and Health
The Search for Alternatives
Science and Technology as Modernization, 1945-64
The Great Leap Forward, 1968-79
Science and Technology as a Pressure Group, 1979-90
The Computer Industry Policy
Science for Industrial Competitiveness
Administration of Science and Technology
The Ministry of Science and Technology
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