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Definition of Terms



The following are the definitions for some of the most important terms utilized in this research.

1. Affective oriented parasocial interaction refers to the level an audience member identifies with or rejects a media character.

2. Behavioral oriented parasocial interaction is the level that the audiences overtly interact with the characters, talk among themselves about the characters, or predict what is going to happen to the characters (Rubin & Perse 1987). Behavioral interaction will also be considered as Freire’s notion that action and reflection equates praxis and Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy and collective efficacy. For example, if posters search for other source of information, if they report that they bought books, go on the Internet, or if they enroll in classes, all of these examples are considered as behavioral interaction..

3. Cognitive oriented parasocial interaction is the degree to which audience members pay careful attention to the educational content of a soap opera episode, reflecting on its meaning and importance. (Sood & Rogers, 2000)

4. Collective efficacy: the common belief in the power to create desired effects by collective action. (Bandura, 1997).

5. Critical involvement is when the audience suggests different plots and engages in the artistic construction of the program (Liebes & Katz, 1986). For our purposes, critical involvement is also interpreted as the suggestions for different approaches, corrections and disagreement to what was expressed in the telenovela “El Clon”, as understood by the message posters.

6. Dialogical Pedagogy: the concept of liberating education, championed by the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire. It is the combination of education as dialogue, participation, and critical thinking.

7. Entertainment-education: the intentional placement of educational content in entertainment messages (Singhal & Rogers, 2002).

8. E-E, Enter-edu, enter-educate, info-tainment, and pro-social entertainment are used interchangeably.
9. Feuilletons (fascicles): newspaper novels printed in installments (Mattelart and Mattelart, 1990). The translated word in Portuguese “folhetim” is used interchangeably with telenovela throughout Brazilian literature.

10. Lurker is a forum participant who reads the messages without contributing to the discussion (Baym, 2000).

11. Merchandising: is how product placement is known in Brazil. It is a form of advertisement inserted in a media program to increase the visibility of a product or service, which has the unique advantage of not breaking away from the program, but is intended to be part of the context, usually endorsed by the characters (La Pastina, 2001).

12. Posters are forum participants that write messages (Baym, 2000).

13. Referential involvement is the degree to which the viewers relate a media message to their own lives. This happens when audience members discuss the television content in reference to their own experiences, placing themselves in the situation of the television program (Liebes & Katz, 1986).

14. Self-efficacy: is one’s belief about their ability to exercise control over events that would affect their lives (Bandura, 1997).

15. Social merchandising: is the insertion of social relevant subjects in the telenovela storyline.

16. Social marketing is “the adaptation of commercial market technologies to programs designed to influence voluntary behavior of target audience to improve their personal welfare and that of the society of which they are a part.” (Andreasen, 1994).

17. Telenovelas (soap operas): also known as novelas, are television serialized dramas; lasting for 180-200 episodes, with a narrative that usually has a definite beginning, middle and end. (Lopez, 1991).

18. Television fans: viewers which participate in a variety of activities that go beyond the private act of viewing, such as writing letters, participating in chat rooms, buying television related publications, reflecting a deeper emotional involvement with a television narrative (Bielby et. al. 1999).


 



 


Table of Contents

Acknowledgements / Dedication - Abstract

CHAPETER 1- INTRODUCTION
01-02-03-04-05-06-07-08-09

CHAPTER II - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE





Acknowledgements / Dedication -

Abstract


CHAPETER 1- INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER II - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

CHAPTER III - THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

CHAPTER IV - THE STUDY

CHAPTER V - THE RESULTS

CHAPTER VI - CONCLUSION

APPENDIX - MESSAGES STUDIED

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