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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Part I-Telenovelas



Overview

In this section a historical context of the telenovelas is presented. The origin of the telenovelas is traced back to European newspaper novels, followed by radionovelas, to the American soap opera, and finally to the formation of a distinctive television genre named telenovela. The regional differences within the Latin American novelas are presented along with an outline of telenovela commercialization in the Global market. Special consideration is given to the Brazilian telenovelas, from its inception to the redefinition of the concept that gave telenovelas a distinct style. The importance of Rede Globo (Globo Television Network) in the development of the genre is also discussed.


Definition and Historical Perspective


Telenovelas (soap-operas) or simply novelas as they are called in Brazil are traced back to nineteenth–century European feuilletons (fascicles), which were newspaper novels printed in installments (Rogers & Antola, 1985; Martín-Barbero, 1988; Marquez de Melo 1988; Mattelart & Mattelart, 1990). Around 1830 newspapers in England and France started publishing serialized novels that became popular with subscribers (Rowe & Schelling, 1991). Newspapers subscriptions increased dramatically due to the readers’ attraction to the adventurous nature of the novels. The formula was simple: storylines were created with a “to be continued” cliffhanger keeping up the interest and curiosity of the readers (Museum of Television and Radio, 1997).

The publishers, attempting to secure the success of this enterprise, hired the most famous novelists of the time. In 1836, publishers Chapman and Hall offered Charles Dickens the opportunity to write a story in monthly installments, to accompany the illustrations of then popular cartoonist Robert Seymor. That was the first time a serial novel was published in installments that did not have an ending in sight (Museum of Television and Radio, 1997). At the same time, French publishers courted and hired Honoré de Balzac to write serial narrative stories. However, Eugène Sue, a French writer, was the first to demonstrate the viability of the serial narratives through mass consumption. Sue's serial “Le juif errant” (The Wandering Jew” (1842) helped to increase the newspaper's circulation from 3,600 subscribers to the neighborhood of 23,000. Much of his success was attributed to his concoction of sensational plots including suicides, murders, conspiracies, and to his mastery of the serialized narrative. Sue left readers in suspense when he ended his narrative stories at a point of unsolved tension. His followers were people from different backgrounds, from businessmen and lawyers to cooks and day laborers (Hagerdorn, 1995). Ortiz et al. (1991), on the other hand, thinks that at this time Sue's work may not really be considered popular. Initially newspapers were obtained through subscription, which restricted its access to the middle class. He argues that it was only after the second imperial period, around 1863, that the masses had access to newspapers, when they started to be sold on the streets. By this time, the popularity of the feuilleton exploded with the urban population and the people of the rural provinces.



 



 


Table of Contents

Acknowledgements / Dedication - Abstract

CHAPETER 1- INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER II - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25-26-27-28-29-30-31-32-33-34-35-36-37-38-39





Acknowledgements / Dedication -

Abstract


CHAPETER 1- INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER II - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

CHAPTER III - THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

CHAPTER IV - THE STUDY

CHAPTER V - THE RESULTS

CHAPTER VI - CONCLUSION

APPENDIX - MESSAGES STUDIED

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