To better understand media effects and reception, attention now
will focus on development communication theories and strategies,
which are highly related to entertainment-education. According to
Stevenson (1994) the basic concept behind development communication
is the utilization of media to the promotion of social change.
Development communication starts with post-war international aid
programs to countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa that are
struggling with poverty, illiteracy, poor health and other socio-economic
plagues. Therefore, development equates values of western society
translated into political democracy, high literacy ratings, increased
industrial production, and other factors that third world countries
are thought to emulate (Inklet & Smith, 1974). Even though the
path of communication theory is not a linear one, concepts and strategies
have been utilized simultaneously. Recent definitions of development
education equates its purpose to a better quality of life, not only
by raising income and well being, but also by promoting social justice,
land reform, and establishing community centers for leisure and
entertainment (Melkote, 1991). There is now a trend to search for
equalization and participation. Non-Govermental Organizations, as
well as government agencies, and international organizations are
involved in development communications. The definition given by
the World Bank division of development communication appears to
embrace their efforts for a more collaborative approach:
The Development Communication Division (DevComm) supports the
Bank's mission of reducing poverty by providing clients with strategic
communication advice and tools they need to develop and implement
successful projects and pro-poor reform efforts.
Development communication involves creating mechanisms to broaden
public access to information on reforms; strengthening clients'
ability to listen to their constituencies and negotiate with stakeholders;
empowering grassroots organizations to achieve a more participatory
process; and undertaking communications activities that are grounded
in public opinion research (The World Bank Group web site).
To further understand the myriad concepts and disciplines that
contribute to the formation of development communication, some of
the different approaches will be described.