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The expanded notion of cognitive interaction is exemplified in the following posted messages from the studied forum:

1. A question about a Muslim wedding night: is everyone really waiting outside the door to see the "bloody" sheets? (I still think it's pathetic that they expect women to bleed all over the sheets) I would think that maybe they'd be in their own houses waiting and then the sheets would be taken sheets? (I still think it's pathetic that they expect women to bleed all over the sheets) I would think that maybe they'd be in their own houses waiting and then the sheets would be taken

2. I was wondering the same thing… Are they overdramatizing the whole situation with the bloody sheet or is this true to life?

3. As a muslim.. i can assure you... this pathetic display of waiting for bleeding.. is not a requirement or part of religion. But, unfortunately, there are some close minded people that do this... or make it a part of marriage rituals. It is more of a cultural thing than muslim. Like in my culture i am suppose to be wearing a red dress rather than white like latifa and jade did.
And, i think since jade let the suspicion of her virginity out in public. That is why tio ali had to proove his dignity and let nazira witness the virginity. Incase of Latiffa... no one stood outside her room it was done the next day in the morning.,, and only women looked at it.

The level that the audiences overtly interact with the characters, for example, sometimes talking to them, or crying with them defines behavioral oriented parasocial interaction. It is also established when audiences talk among themselves about the characters. When viewers predict what is going to happen to characters or they think about the program after it is over are also exhibitions of behavioral interaction (Rubin & Perse, 1987). A classical example of behavioral parasocial interaction is the case when viewers dressed up and actually went to church to attend the wedding in “Simplemente Maria” (Singhal, Obregon, & Rogers, 1994).

Because of the context that the research takes place, an online message board, it is already implied that the message writers demonstrate behavioral interaction since they are talking among themselves about the novela and also thinking about it after it is over. However, keeping true to this study theoretical framework, behavioral interaction is also considered as Freire’s notion that action and reflection equates praxis, and Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy and collective efficacy. For example, if posters search for other source of information, if they report that they bought books, go on the Internet, or if they enroll in classes, all of these examples are considered as behavioral interaction. Some excerpts of posted messages illustrating behavioral oriented parasocial interaction are as follow:

1. …Now Said, on the other had, I'm liking more and more. He had to have his suspicions regarding Jade's virginity (or lack there of). When he asked his uncle about the punishment for the man who dishonored a woman, you could see how he quickly discarded the idea of having Lucas punished when he found out that Jade would be punished as well. As I saw him cut his own arm and tell Jade that his own sin was even bigger than hers, I found myself almost screaming at Jade through the tv. How can you not see how incredible this man is? Heck, I fell in love with Said!

2. I found the following article on the internet, giving an explanation of the Muslim calendar, followed by a list of the Muslim holidays. I thought it was interesting, so I decided to share it with all of you….

Referential involvement is the degree to which the viewers relate a media message to their own lives. It happens when audience members discuss the television content in reference to their own experiences, placing themselves in the situation of the television program (Liebes & Katz, 1986). Papa et. al. (2000) posit that behavior change as a result of exposure to a media character is less likely to occur if the audience members cannot relate their experiences to the ones of the media character. Following are some posted messages that exemplify referential involvement:

1. If I were in Jade's shoes, I would have loved Said and forgotten Lucas, but that's not the way the novela was written. I think most women here would cherish being loved by a man the way Said loved Jade, and if he was a bit restrictive, it's to be understood because it was his culture and background. But he was in fact much less restrictive than other Muslim men would have been; how many Muslim men (or men of other cultures which insist on virginity) would have done what he did on his wedding night?

2. I am also a Muslim born woman, but to be honest I can see some members of my family reflected somehow in the characters LOL!!, it makes me laugh the way the present if, but we always need to keep in mind it is a soap-opera! and the purpose is to entertain the audience. I do also think it shows more about cultural behavior, it's fun to watch!!

Critical involvement is when the audiences suggest different plots and engage in the artistic construction of the program (Liebes & Katz, 1986). For research purposes, critical involvement is also interpreted as the suggestions for different approaches, corrections and disagreement or concordance to what is expressed in the telenovela “El Clon” regarding Muslim culture, as understood by the message posters. Here are some examples:

1. I love the novela EL CLON dearly i am obsesed with it, lemme just tell you that before i start. i dont wanna anger any fans i am one of the biggest fans i know that!!!

I am Morroccan and muslim and i want you to know a lot of stuff is done wrong!

Muslim women have a lot more rights than el clon shows. A woman cannot be forced to marry It i s haram!!! under any circumstances it is haram(forbidden). a woman has her own rights and property under islam. A man can't remarry whenever he feels like it. A new law in morocco and Egypt is written consent of the first wife Also,the custody of children is ususally to the mother. Yes the kids beling to the father, meaning that they have his last name and his religion and belong to his family not hers, but in case of a divorce they go w/ the mother until they are old enough to decide. There is alot of other things I can't remember. Oh and I havent seen this epidoe but D summaries said for and episode Jade asks if her opinion counts for anything and he says men are higher in the quran the women!!!! i wanted to punch the computer screen. thats not true the are equal in the eyes off god it says that.
They overdid things and made stuff up just to fit the story and I felt insulted being moroccan and muslim. They insulted me, fellow fans of el clon you have to understand i dont know of there is another arab or morroccan here.

Also i havent seen it from the beginning and i see alot of you guys have the tapes of el clon where did u get them!! I really want it on vhs too! if anyone can sell me a copy or something i will ove them forever.

I just posted this cuz i dont want anyone to have any wrong ideas about my land or my religion.

2. Doesn’t Khadija ever learn…. Doesn't she ever get tired of the same old refrain...much oro...inshala!!!! Come on girl, can't you see how your mother is suffering for taking that path! You've got a good brain, use it!

In any case, I hope she winds up with the chubby kid and he makes her work for a living. It will be really funny if she loved him madly but he gave her no oro inshala.



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Acknowledgements / Dedication - Abstract





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